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Vandana Shiva

Vandana Shiva ( Hindi : 5 ा शिवा : born 5 November 1952) is an Indian scholar , environmental activist , food sovereignty advocate, and anti-globalization author. [2] Shiva, currently based in Delhi , has authored more than twenty books. [3]

She is one of the leaders and board members of the International Forum on Globalization (along with Jerry Mander , Edward Goldsmith , Ralph Nader , Jeremy Rifkin , et al.), And a figure of the global solidarity movement known as the alter-globalization movement . [4] She has argued for the wisdom of Many traditional practices, as is evident from her interview in the book Vedic Ecology (by Ranchor Prime ) That draws upon India’s Vedic heritage. She is a member of the scientific committee of the Fundacion IDEAS , Spain’s Socialist Party’s think tank.[5]She is also a member of the International Organization for a Participatory Society. [6] She received the Right Livelihood Award in 1993, and numerous other prizes.

Early life and education

Vandana Shiva was born in Dehradun . Her father was a conservator of forests, and her mother was a farmer with a love for nature. She was educated at St. Mary’s School in Nainital , and at the Convent of Jesus and Mary , Dehradun . [7]

Shiva Studied physics at Panjab University in Chandigarh , graduating as a Bachelor of Science in 1972 and a Master of Science in 1974. [8] After That She Worked, Briefly, at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center before moving to Canada to Pursue an MA in The philosophy of science at the University of Guelph (Ontario) in 1977, with a thesis entitled “Changes in the concept of periodicity of light”. [8] [9] In 1978, she completed and received a PhD in philosophy at the University of Western Ontario , [10] focusing on philosophy of physics. Her dissertation was titled “Hidden variables and locality in quantum theory,” in which she discussed the mathematical and philosophical implications of hidden variables that fall outside the purview of Bell’s theorem . [11] She later went on to interdisciplinary research in science, technology, and environmental policy at the Indian Institute of Science and the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore . [7]


Vandana Shiva has written extensively in the fields of agriculture and food. Intellectual property rights , biodiversity , biotechnology , bioethics , and genetic engineering are among the fields where Shiva has fought through activist campaigns. She has assisted grassroots organizations of the Green movement in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Ireland, Switzerland , and Austria with the use of genetic engineering.

In 1982, she founded the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology where? ] . This paper was published in 1991, a national movement to protect the diversity and integrity of living resources, especially native seed, the promotion of organic farming and fair trade. [12] In 2004 Shiva started Bija Vidyapeeth, an international college for sustainable living in Doon Valley, in collaboration with Schumacher College , UK citation needed ]

In the area of ​​intellectual property and biodiversity, Shiva and her team at the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology challenged the biopiracy of Neem, Basmati and Wheat. She has served on expert groups of where? ] government on Biodiversity and IPR legislation. quote needed ]

Her first book, Staying Alive (1988), helped redefine perceptions of third world women. In 1990, she wrote a report for the FAO on Women and Agriculture entitled, “Most Farmers in India are Women”. She founded the gender unit at the International Center for Mountain Development (ICIMOD) in Kathmandu and was a founding board member of the Women’s Environment & Development Organization (WEDO) citation needed ] .

Shiva has also served as advisor to governments in India and other non-governmental organizations, including the International Forum on Globalization , the Women’s Environment & Development Organization, and the Third World Network . Shiva chairs the Commission on the Future of Food set up by the Region of Tuscany in Italy and is a member of the Scientific Committee qui Advised form premium minister Zapatero of Spain. Shiva is a member of the Steering Committee of the Indian Peoples Campaign Against WTO . She is a councilor of the World Future Council . Shiva serves on the Government of India Committees on Organic Farming. Vandana Shiva participated in theStock Exchange of Visions project in 2007. [13]


Vandana Shiva has had a great deal of life in the defense and celebration of biodiversity and indigenous knowledge. She has worked to promote biodiversity in agriculture, productivity, farming, and farming. It was recognized as an environmental hero by Time magazine in 2003. Her work on agriculture started in 1984 after the violence in Punjab Bhopal from Union Carbide’s Pesticide Manufacturing Plant. Her studies for the University of the United States The Violence of the Green Revolution . [14] [15] [16]

In an interview with David Barsamian , Shiva argues that the seed-chemical package promoted by Green Revolution agriculture has depleted fertile soil, destroyed living ecosystems, and negatively impacted people’s health. [17] In her work Shiva cites data allegedly demonstrating that there are more than 1400 pesticides in the world, [18] because only 1% of pesticides sprayed act on the target pest. [19] Vandana Shiva, Dr. Mira Shiva’s sister and sister, argues that the health costs of increasing pesticide and fertilizer use. [20]

Seed freedom

Central to Shiva’s work is the idea of ​​seed freedom, or the rejection of corporate patents on seeds. The Trade Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) , which broadens the scope of patents to include life forms. Shiva has criticized the agreement as having close ties with the corporate sector and has opened the door to further patents on life. [21] Shiva calls the patenting of life ‘biopiracy’, and has fought against the patents of several indigenous plants. In 2005, Shiva’s was one of the three organizations that won a 10-year battle in the European Patent Office against the biopiracy of Neem by the US Department of Agricultureand the corporation WR Grace . [22] In 1998, Shiva’s organization Navdanya began a campaign against the biopiracy of US RiceTec Inc. in 2001, following intensive campaigning, RiceTec lost most of its claims to the patent.

Golden Rice

Shiva strongly opposes Golden rice , a precursor of Vitamin A. It has been developed for the first time in the world. year “from becoming blind , and would assist in alleviating the vitamin A deficiency suffered by 250 million people in developing countries. [23] Shiva has claimed that the women of Bengal grow and eat 150 greens which can do the same, which has a furious Martina McGloughlin an event compared to “Marie Antoinette, [who] suggested the peasants eat cake if they did not have access bread “. [23]It was also pointed out that “nutritionists at UNICEF doubted it was actually possible to get enough vitamin A from the Shiva greens was recommending”. [23] Patrick Moorewrites that most of these 250 million children do not eat much more than a bowl of rice a day. [24] Doctor Adrian Dubock says that it is the greatest reason for blindness and causes 28% of global preschool child mortality. [25]

Shiva claims that Golden Rice is more harmful than “golden rice hoax”: ” This is a recipe for creating hunger and malnutrition, not solving it. ” [26]

At the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science , the director of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Ismail Serageldin, asked: “do you want 2 to 3 million children a year to go blind and 1 million to die of vitamin A deficiency, just because you have been created? ” [23] In a 2013 report “The Economic Power of the Golden Rice Opposition” two economists, Wesselera and Zilberman from Munich University and the University of California at Berkeley respectively calculated that the absence of Golden Rice in India had caused the loss of 1.4 million life in the previous ten years. [27]

GM, India, and suicides

According to Shiva, “Soaring Seeds in India” The creation of seed monopolies, the destruction of alternatives, the collection of superprofits in the form of royalties, and the increased vulnerability of monocultures has been developed for suicides, and agrarian distress. According to the Indian government, nearly 75 percent of the population is in debt. Shiva claims that farmers’ debt grows as GMO corporation’s profits grow. According to Shiva, it is in this system that GM seeds are those of suicide.

However, the seller offers more than $ 10,000 per year-virtually all of the target farming community.

However, farmer suicides had begun to grow before the introduction of the GM seeds, and the growth when GM seeds were introduced. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is one of the most important of these two countries. the suicides. [28] [29] [30]

These arguments, which have been reduced to the issue of genocide and the issue of seed monopolies, and that the suicide figures were from the government of the National Bureau of Crime Records. [31]


Vandana Shiva plays a major role in the global Ecofeminist movement. According to her 2004 article Empowering Women, [32] Shiva suggests that a more sustainable and productive approach to agriculture can be achieved through reinstating the system of farming in India. She advocates against the prevalent “patriarchal logic of exclusion,” claiming that a woman-focused system would change the current system in an extremely positive manner. [33] She believes that ecological destruction and industrial disasters threaten daily life, and the maintenance of these problems has become the responsibility of women. [34]

Some of the viewpoints held by Vandana Shiva have been criticized as being essentialist by Cecile Jackson . [35]

Indian Intelligence Bureau Investigation

In June 2014, Indian and International Media reported that Navdanya and Vandana Shiva were named in a leaked, classified report by India’s Intelligence Bureau (IB), which was prepared for the Indian Prime Minister’s Office. [36]

The leaked IB report raises concerns over the foreign-funding of Indian NGOs, the reporting claims, are hampering India’s growth and development. In its report, the IB said that Indian NGOs, including Navdanya, receive money from foreign donors under the ‘charitable garb’ of campaigning for human rights or women’s equality, but instead use the money for nefarious purposes. “These foreign donors lead local NGOs to provide field reports which are used to build a record against the countries and territories,” the IB report states. [37]

The present Indian government, however, is appreciative of the fact that it is a question of nationalistic arguments in order to financially hobble and thus limit the activities of NGOs that poses a challenge to it. [38] [39]


Journalist Ronald Bailey accused Vandana Shiva of being a “proud self-declared luddite “. [40]

In a 2013 message on Twitter , Vandana Shiva described Mark Lynas as “..saying farmers should be free to grow #GMOs which can contaminate #organic farms is like saying #rapists should have freedom to rape.” [41] Forbesmagazine commented on this tweet: “Comparison of agricultural biotech to” rape “is deplorable considering the astronomical rate of sexual assault in India.” [42] Mark Lynas called Shiva’s tweet “obscene and offensive.” [42]

Investigative journalist Michael Specter , in an article in The New Yorker on 25 August 2014 entitled “Seeds of Doubt”, [10] raised concerns over a number of Shiva ‘s claims regarding GMOs and some of its campaigning methods. He wrote: “Shiva’s absolutism about GMOs can lead in strange directions In 1999, ten thousand people were killed and millions were left homeless when a cyclone hit India’s eastern coastal state of Orissa. When the United States and the United States go to New Guinea and the United States, the United States has been helped by the United States, and the United States has made the claim that the United States has been using the Orissa as a guinea pigs for genetically-engineered products. , it is made in the United States and the United States. She aussi wrote to the International Relief agency Oxfam to say That She Hoped It Was not Planning To Send genetically modified foods to feed the starving survivors. ” [10] Shiva’s Responded [43]to Michael Specter’s article by publishing a section on her web page in part of which she stated: “For the record, ever since I sued Monsanto in 1999 for its illegal Bt cotton trials in India,” The concerted PR PRESS ON THE LAST TWO YEARS FROM LYNNAS, SPECTER AND AN ALBUM VICTORY, “The Monsanto through GMOs, is making the biotech industry panic.” [10] Specter responding by publishing a letter in the New Yorker. [44]

In the same piece, Specter wrote “Shiva refers to its scientific credentials in almost every appearance, yet it often dispenses with the conventions of scientific inquiry.” Specter also questioned the credibility of a book in the history of Shiva’s book jackets, and that states “Before becoming an activist, Vandana Shiva was one of India’s leading physicists”; he relates that when he asked her if she had worked on a physicist, she suggests that he search for the answer on Google; but he says that he found nothing, and that it does not matter any such position in her biography. [10]

Journalist Keith Kloor , in an article published in Discover on 23 October 2014 entitled “The Rich Allure of a Peasant Champion”, revealed that Shiva charges US $ 40,000 per speaking reading, plus a business-class ticket from New Delhi. Kloor writes: “She is often heralded as a tireless” defender of the poor, “someone who has courageously taken her stand among the peasants of India.” Let it be noted, however, that this champion of the downtrodden does not exactly live a peasant’s lifestyle. ” [45]


Vandana Shiva has been interviewed for a number of documentary films including Freedom Ahead , Roshni; [46] One Water , citation needed ] Deconstructing Supper: Is Your Food Safe ?, The Corporation , Thrive, Dirt! The Movie , and This Is What Democracy Looks Like (a documentary about the Seattle WTO protests of 1999 ). [47]

Shiva’s focus on water has caused a lot of movies on this topic. These films include “Ganga From the Ground Up,” a documentary on water issues in the river Ganges; [48] Blue Gold: World Water Wars by Sam Bozzo ; Irena Salina’sdocumentary Flow: For Love of Water (in competition at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival ), and the PBS NOW Documentary On Thin Ice. [49]

On the topic of genetically modified crops, she was featured in the documentary Fed Up! (2002 film) Genetic Engineering, Industrial Agriculture and Sustainable Alternatives and the documentary The World According to Monsanto , made by French Independent journalist Marie-Monique Robin .

Shiva appeared in a documentary film about the Dalai Lama , entitled Dalai Lama Renaissance . [50]

In 2010, Shiva was interviewed in a documentary about honeybees and colony collapse disorder , entitled ” Queen of the Sun. ” [51]

She appears in the French movie “Tomorrow”. [52]

Selected listing

  • Poverty Inc. 2014 [53]
  • The Farmer and His Prince 2013 [54]
  • Creating Freedom: The Lottery of Birth 2013 [55]
  • Seeds of Death: Unveiling the Lies of GMOs 2012 [56]
  • Another Story of Progress 2012 [57]
  • The True Cost 2015, a documentary about fast fashion and the garment industry .


  • See also1981, Vantana Shiva, HC Sharatchandra, J. Banyopadhyay , Social Economic and Ecological Impact of Social Forestry in Kolar , Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
  • 1986, Chipko : India’s Civilian Response to the Forest Crisis , J. Bandopadhyay and Vandana Shiva, Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage . Pub. by INTACH
  • 1987, The Chipko Movement Against Limestone Quarrying in Doon Valley , Bandopadhyay J. and Vandana Shiva, Lokayan Bulletin, 5: 3, 1987, pp. 19-25 online
  • 1988, Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Survival in India , Zed Press, New Delhi, ISBN 0-86232-823-3
  • 1989, The Violence of the Green Revolution : Punjab , Ecological Degradation and Political Conflict , Natraj Publishers, New Delhi
  • 1991, Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, ISBN 0-8039-9672-1
  • 1992, Biodiversity: Social and Ecological Perspectives (editor); Zed Press, United Kingdom
  • 1993, Women, Ecology and Health: Rebuilding Connections , Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and Kali for Women , New Delhi
  • 1993, Monocultures of the Mind: Biodiversity, Biotechnology and Agriculture , Zed Press, New Delhi
  • 1993, Ecofeminism , Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva, Fernwood Publications, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, ISBN 1-895686-28-8
  • 1994, Close to Home: Women’s Reconnect Ecology , Earthscan, Health and Development Worldwide , London, ISBN 0-86571-264-6
  • 1995, Biopolitics (with Ingunn Moser), Zed Books, United Kingdom
  • 1997, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge , South End Press , Cambridge Massachusetts, I ISBN 1-896357-11-3
  • 2000, Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply , South End Press , Cambridge Massachusetts, ISBN 0-89608-608-9
  • 2000, Tomorrow’s Biodiversity , London Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-28239-0
  • 2001, Patents, Myths and Reality , Penguin India
  • 2002, Water Wars; Privatization, Pollution, and Profit , South End Press , Cambridge Massachusetts
  • 2005, India Divided , Seven Stories Press,
  • 2005, Globalization’s New Wars: Seed, Water and Life Forms, Women Unlimited, New Delhi, ISBN 81-88965-17-0
  • 2005, Earth Democracy; Justice, Sustainability, and Peace , South End Press , ISBN 0-89608-745-X
  • 2007, Manifestos on the Future of Food and Seed , Editor, South End ISBN 978-0-89608-777-4
  • 2007, Democratizing Biology: Paradigm Publishers, ISBN 978-1-59451-204-9, Reinventing Biology from a Feminist, Ecological and Third World Perspective
  • 2008, Soil Not Oil , South End ISBN 978-0-89608-782-8
  • 2010, Staying Alive , South End ISBN 978-0-89608-793-4
  • 2011, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature & Knowledge , Natraj Publishers, ISBN 978-8-18158-160-0
  • 2011, Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity , Natraj Publishers, ISBN 978-8-18158-151-8
  • 2013, Making Peace With The Earth Pluto Press ISBN 978-0-7453-33762
  • biopiracy
  • Green Revolution in India
  • Science and Technology Studies in India


  1. Jump up^ “Sustaining Life” . Saving Species . 23 December 2011. BBC Radio 4 . Retrieved 18 January 2014 .
  2. Jump up^ Who’s Who of Women and the Environment – Vandana Shiva United Nations Environment Program(UNEP)
  3. Jump up^ “Vandana Shiva’s Publications” . Retrieved 2011-02-24 .
  4. Jump up^ Chattergee, DK (2011). Encyclopedia of Global Justice, AI Vol. 1 . ISBN  9781402091599 . Retrieved 2014-10-22 .
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  6. Jump up^ International Organization for a Participatory Society – Interim CommitteeRetrieved 2012-09-25
  7. ^ Jump up to:b Joy Palmer, David Cooper, Peter Blaze Corcoran: Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment . Routledge, 2002, ISBN  9781134756247 , p. 313
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Benjamin F. Shearer, Barbara S. Shearer: Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary . Greenwood Press, 1997, p. 364
  9. Jump up^ Vandana Shiva (1977). Changes in the concept of periodicity of light (MA Thesis (microfiche)). Canadian Theses Division, National Library, Ottawa . Retrieved 22 September 2012 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:e “Vandana Shiva’s Crusade Against Genetically Modified Crops – The New Yorker” . The New Yorker . August 25, 2014 . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ “Hidden variables and locality in quantum theory / by Vandana Shiva”(microform) . Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Western Ontario, 1978. 18 July 2008 . Retrieved 2012-09-22 .
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  13. Jump up^ “Vandana Shiva: Environmental Activist” . Manthan Samvaad. nd . Retrieved 03/06/2014 . Check date values ​​in:( help ) |access-date=
  14. Jump up^ Fight Droughts with Science: Better food could ease India’s monsoon worries, HENRY I. MILLER, Stanford University’s Hoover Institution, The Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2009.
  15. Jump up^ “The Father Of The ‘Green Revolution ‘ ” . University of Minnesota. 25 February 2008. Archived from the original on 5 April 2009.
  16. Jump up^ Father of the Green Revolution – He Helped Feed the World! ja “Determining the Number Norman Borlaug – The Green Revolution”, ScienceHeroes.com Tohtori Amy R. Piercen mukaan useimmat lukuisista arvioista yli miljardista ihmishengestä perustuvat ennustettuihin nälänhätiin, jotka jäivät toteutumatta, ja ovat epävarmoja. Piercen mukaan silti vaikutus kuolleisuuteen oli todella näin suuri, koska ravitsemus vaikuttaa niin voimakkaasti lapsikuolleisuuteen ja elinikään.
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  20. Jump up^ “Vandana & Mira Shiva on Corporate Malpractice in India and its Devastating Impact on Health” . Democracy Now! . Retrieved 20 January2015 .
  21. Jump up^ “Interview with Vandana Shiva – The Role of Patents in the Rise of Globalization / Global Eyes / In Motion Magazine” . Inmotionmagazine.com. Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  22. Jump up^ “BBC NEWS – Science / Nature – India wins landmark patent battle” . News.bbc.co.uk . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  23. ^ Jump up to:d Dr. Strangelunch Gold: Why we shoulds learn to Stop Worrying and Love genetically modified food , The Reason, Ronald Bailey, January 2001.
  24. Jump up^ By opposing Golden Rice, Greenpeace challenges its own values ​​- and harms children,The Globe and Mail, 15 October 2013.
  25. Jump up^ No, Zac Goldsmith, golden rice is not ‘evil GM’. It saves people’s lives, Dr. Adrian Dubock,The Guardian, 4 November 2013.
  26. Jump up^ “THE” GOLDEN RICE “HOAX -When Public Relations Replaces Science” . Online.sfsu.edu. 2000-06-29 . Retrieved 2013-08-26 .
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  28. Jump up^ Vandana Shiva, Anti-GMO Celebrity: ‘Eco Goddess’ Gold Dangerous Fabulist? , Jon Entine & Ryan Cami, Forbes, 1/29/2014.
  29. Jump up^ Bt Cotton and farmer suicides in India:International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2008. Abstract, page 27 and Figure 11.
  30. Jump up^ The GMO-Suicide Myth, Keith Kloor, Issues in Science and Technology, 2014.
  31. Jump up^ “Seed Monopolies, GMOs And Suicide Farmers In India By Dr Vandana Shiva” . Countercurrents.org . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  32. Jump up^ Vandana Shiva Dr.: Empowering Women10 June 2004 byWordPress.com
  33. Jump up^ [1]4 June 2004Archived6 June 2011 at theWayback Machine.
  34. Jump up^ Shiva, Vandana (1993). Ecofeminism . Zed Books.
  35. Jump up^ Cecile Jackson: Radical Environmental Myths: A Gender Perspective, 1995
  36. Jump up^ “India targets Prince Charles’ help in war on Greenpeace” . The Daily Telegraph . 22 June 2014 . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  37. Jump up^ “Foreign-aided NGOs are actively staking development, IB tells PMO in a report” . Indian Express . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  38. Jump up^ Doshi, Vidhi (2016-11-24). “India accused of muzzling NGOs by blocking foreign funding” . The Guardian . ISSN  0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-05-18 .
  39. Jump up^ “Targeting NGOs Hurts Those Most in Need” . Human Rights Watch . 2016-12-23 . Retrieved 2017-05-18 .
  40. Jump up^ Rebels Against the Future: Witnessing the birth of the global anti-technology movement,Ronald Bailey, The Reason, 28 February 2001.
  41. Jump up^ Shiva, Vanada (2013-01-04). “Dr. Vandana Shiva Twitter account” . Twitter . Retrieved 2016-11-30 .
  42. ^ Jump up to:b Senapathy, Kavin (2015-11-03). “Vandana Shiva Achieves Amazing Feat Of Appropriating Her Own Culture” . Forbes . Retrieved 2016-11-30 .
  43. Jump up^ “Seeds of Truth – A response to The New Yorker | Dr. Vandana Shiva” . vandanashiva.com . Retrieved 2016-12-01 .
  44. Jump up^ “New Yorker editor David Remnick responds to Vandana Shiva criticism of Specter’s Michael Specter’s Profile | Genetic Literacy Project” . Genetic Literacy Project . 2014-09-02 . Retrieved 2016-12-01 .
  45. Jump up^ “The Rich Allure of a Peasant Champion” . Collide-a-Scape . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  46. Jump up^ “The Unknown Film Company – Film Production Services” . The Unknown Film Company . Retrieved 20 January 2015 .
  47. Jump up^ “This Is What Democracy Looks Like DVD” . AK Press. February 26, 2005 . Retrieved 14 April 2011 .
  48. Jump up^ http://www.gayawana.org
  49. Jump up^ “On Ice Thin, NOW on PBS” . Pbs.org. March 12, 2010 . Retrieved 14 April 2011 .
  50. Jump up^ “Dalai Lama Renaissance Documentary Movie – Narrated by Harrison Ford – DVD Dali Tibet China” . Dalailamafilm.com . Retrieved 14 April 2011 .
  51. Jump up^ “Vandana Shiva” . Queen of the Sun. November 6, 2010 . Retrieved 14 April 2011 .
  52. Jump up^ https://www.demain-lefilm.com/en/film
  54. Jump up^ Future of Food Journal2 [2] Winter-2014/2015 – Page 95, 96 The Farmer and his Prince
  55. Jump up^ The Hollywood ReporterCreating Freedom: The Lottery of Birth: Film Review 6/21/2013 by John DeFore
  56. Jump up^ Seattle Community MediaBetter Days Movies – Day 19, Seeds of Death – Winning Award – Unveiling the Lies of GMOs – Part 1
  57. Jump up^ Documentary HeavenAnOther Story Of Progress

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