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Timeline of history of environmentalism

This timeline is a listing of events that have shaped humanity’s perspective on the environment . This timeline includes human induced disasters, which have had a positive influence, and environmental legislation .

7th century

  • 630s – Caliph Abu Bakr commanded his army: “Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire, especially those which are fruitful. [1]
  • 676 – Cuthbert of Lindisfarne enacts protection for the Farne Islands ( Northumberland , UK).

9th-13th centuries

  • Arabic medical treatises dealing with environmentalism and environmental science , Including pollution, Were written by al-Kindi , Qusta ibn Luqa , Al-Razi , Ibn Al-Jazzar , al-Tamimi , al-Masihi , Avicenna , Ali ibn Ridwan , Ibn Jumay , Isaac Israeli ben Solomon , Abd-el-latif , Ibn al-Quff, and Ibn al-Nafis . Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, Such As air pollution, water pollution , soil contamination ,municipal solid wastemishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities. [2]
  • Cordoba , Al-Andalus , had waste containers and waste disposal facilities for litter collection. [3] [4]

13th century

  • 1272 – King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London , after its smoke had become a problem. [5] [6]

14th century

  • 1366 – The city of Paris forces butchers to the outside of the city (Ponting)
  • 1388 – The English Parliament passes an act forbidding the throwing of filth and garbage into ditches, rivers and waters. The city of Cambridge also passes the first urban sanitary laws in England

15th century

  • 1420 to 1427, Madeira islands : The destruction of the forest laurisilva, or the woods, which is the most important of the islands. [7] It is said that the fire burned for seven years.

17th century

  • 1609 – Hugo Grotius publishes Mare Liberum (The Free Sea) with arguments for the new principle that the sea was international territory and all nations were free to use it for seafaring trade. The ensuing debate had the Britishclaim to territorial sovereignty over three miles (5 km) limit.
  • 1640 – Isaac Walton writes The Complete Angler about fishing and conservation.
  • 1690 – Colonial Governor William Penn requires Pennsylvania settlers to preserve 1-acre (4,000 m 2 ) of trees for every five acres cleared.
– The last Mauritius dodo dies. The extinction was caused by hunting, but by the pigs, rats, dogs and cats brought to the island by settlers. Later on the species has become an icon on animal extinction. [8]

18th century

  • 1711 – Jonathan Swift notes the contents of London’s gutters: “sweepings from butchers’ stalls, dung, guts and blood, drowned puppies, stinking sprats, drenched in mud …”
  • 1720 – In India, hundreds of Bishnish Hindus of Khejadali go to their deaths trying to protect trees from the Maharaja of Jodhpur , who needed to fuel the lime kilns for cement to build his palace. This event has been considered as the origin of the 20th century Chipko movement .
  • 1739 – Benjamin Franklin and neighbors Pennsylvania petition to stop waste dumping and remove tanneries from Philadelphia’s commercial district. Foul smell, lower property values, disease and interference with fire fighting are cited. The industries complain that their rights are being violated, but Franklin argues for “public rights.” Franklin and the environmentalists win a symbolic battle and the dumping goes on.
  • 1748 – Jared Eliot , Clergyman and Physician, Writes Essays on Field Husbandry in New England promoting soil conservation.
  • 1762 to 1769 – Philadelphia committee led by Benjamin Franklin attempts to regulate waste disposal and water pollution .
  • 1773 – William Bartram , (1739-1823) . American naturalist sets out on a five-year journey through the US Southeast to describe wildlife and wilderness from Florida to the Mississippi . His book, Travels , is published in 1791 and becomes one of the early literary classics of the new United States of America.
  • 1798 – Thomas Robert Malthus publishes An Essay on the Principle of Population , an evolutionary social theory of population dynamics.

19th century

  • 1820 – World human population reached 1 trillion. [9]
  • 1828 – Carl Sprengel formulates the Law of the Minimum stating that economic growth is limited by the scarcest resource.
  • 1845 – First use of the term ” carrying capacity ” in a postponement by the US Secretary of State to the Senate.
  • 1849 – Establishment of the US Department of Interior .
  • 1851 – Henry David Thoreau delivers an address to the Concord (Massachusetts) Lyceum declaring that “in Wildness is the preservation of the World.” In 1863, this address is published posthumously as the essay “Walking” in Thoreau’s Excursions .
  • 1854 – Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden ; gold, Life in the Woods .
  • 1859 – William Elliott’s publication Carolina Sports by Land and Water (first published in 1846), an early example of the hunter-as-conservationist, which has become increasingly important for conservationism .
  • 1860 – Henry David Thoreau Delivers an address to the Middlesex (Massachusetts) Agricultural Society, Entitled “The Succession of Forest Trees,” in qui he analyzes aspects of what later cam to be Understood as forest ecologyand Urges farmers to plant trees in natural patterns of succession; The Excursions , the most influential ecological contribution to conservationist thought.
  • 1862 – John Ruskin publishes Unto This Last , which contains a proto-environmental indictment of the effects of unrestricted industrial expansion on both human beings and the natural world. The book influences Mahatma Gandhi, William Morris [10] and Patrick Geddes . [11]
  • 1864 – George Perkins Marsh Publishers Man and Nature; or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action , the first systematic analysis of humanity’s destructive impact on the natural environment and the work of the Lewis Mumford’s words “the fountain -head of the conservation movement . “
  • 1866 – The term ecology is coined in German by Oekologie by Ernst Heinrich Philipp Haeckel August (1834-1919) in his Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Haeckel was an anatomist, zoologist, and field naturalist appointed professor of zoology at the Zoological Institute, Jena, in 1865. Haeckel was philosophically an enthusiastic Darwinian . Ecology is from the Greek oikos, meaning house or dwelling and logos, meaning discourse or the study of.
– The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded.
  • 1869 – Samuel Bowles publishes Our New West. Records of Travel between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean , an influential traveler’s account of the wilds and peoples of the West, in which he advocates the preservation of other scenic areas such as Niagara Falls and the Adirondacks .
  • 1872 – The term acid rain is coined by Robert Angus Smith in the book Air and Rain .
– World’s first national park, Yellowstone National Park .
– Arbor Day was founded by Sterling J. Morton of Nebraska City, Nebraska . It is happening every year on the last Friday in April in the US.
  • 1873 – International Meteorological Organization is formed.
  • 1874 – Charles Hallock establishes Forest and Stream magazine sparking at the US national debate about ethics and hunting.
– German graduate student Othmar Zeidler first DDT synthetics , later to be used as an insecticide.
  • 1876 ​​- British River Pollution Control Act makes it illegal to dump sewage into a stream.
  • 1879 – US Geological Survey formed. John Wesley Powell , exploring the Colorado River in March 1881.
  • 1883 – Francis Galton coins the still controversial concept of eugenics in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development .
  • 1890 – Yosemite National Park Bill, established the Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks in California .
  • 1891 – Oscar Baumann , Austrian explorer of East Africa, publishes an eye-witness account of the extreme drought period 1883-1902 called Emutai by the Maasai . [12]
– General Revision Act .
  • 1892 – John Muir , (1838-1914) , founded the Sierra Club .
  • 1895 – Svante Arrhenius presented to the Stockholm Physical Society the paper “On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air on the Temperature of the Ground.” It is the first scientific work concerning the influence of a carbon dioxide on atmospheric warming. He used previous studies by Josef Stefan , Arvid Gustaf Högbom , Samuel Langley , Leon Teisserenc of Bort , Knut Angstrom , Alexander Buchan , Luigi De Marchi , Joseph Fourier , CSM Pouillet , and John Tyndall . [13]
  • 1895 – Sewage cleanup in London means the return of some fish species (grilse, whitebait, flounder, eel, smelt) to the River Thames .

20th century

  • 1902 – George Washington Carver writes How to Build Up Worn Out Soils .
  • 1903 – March 14, US President Theodore Roosevelt premieres the National Bird Preserve, (the beginning of the Wildlife Refuge system) on Pelican Island , Florida .
– 7300 hectares of land in the Lake District of the Andes foothills in Patagonia are donated by Francisco Moreno to the first park, Nahuel Huapi National Park , in what become the National Park System of Argentina .
  • 1905 – The term smog is coined by Henry Antoine Des Voeux in a London meeting to express concern over air pollution .
– The National Audubon Society is founded.
  • 1906 – Antiquities Act , passed by US Congress which authorized the president to set aside national monument sites.
– San Francisco earthquake and subsequent fires destroy much of the city.
  • 1908 – Muir Woods National Monument was established on January 9 and now by the National Park Service .
– The National Conservation Commission , appointed in June by President Roosevelt.
– An article by Robert Underwood Johnson in Century magazine, “A High Price to Pay for Water,” helps bring the Hetch Hetchy controversy to national attention.
  • 1909 – US President Theodore Roosevelt agrees with the North American Conservation Conference, held in Washington, DC and attended by representatives of Canada, Newfoundland , Mexico, and the United States.


  • 1913 – US Congress enacts law which destroyed the Hetch Hetchy Valley .
  • 1916 – US Congress created the National Park Service .
  • 1918 – The Save-the-Redwoods League is founded to the protect the remaining coast redwood trees. Over 60% of the redwoods in California’s state of redwood parks have been protected by the organization.
– Scientific American reports alcohol-gasoline anti-knock blend is “universally” expected to be the fuel of the future. Seven years later, in Public Health Service Hearings, General Motors and Standard Oil spokesmen will no longer be able to use gasoline as an anti-knock additive.
– Congress approves the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 , which implements a 1916 Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds , and establishes responsibility for international migratory bird protection.
– Spanish Flu kills between 50 to 100 million people worldwide
  • 1919 – The National Parks Conservation Association is founded.


  • 1921 – Thomas Midgley, Jr. discovers lead components to be efficient antiknock agent in gasoline engines. In spite of the well-known toxic effects, lead was in ubiquitous use. First banned from use in Japan 1986. [14]
  • 1922 – The Izaak Walton League is founded.
  • 1924 – The death of English textile worker Nellie Kershaw from asbestosis .
  • 1927 – Great Mississippi Flood .
  • 1928 – Thomas Midgley, Jr. develops chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs ) as a non-toxic refrigerant. The first warnings of damage to stratospheric ozone were published by Molina and Rowland 1974. They shared the 1995 Nobel Prizefor Chemistry for their work. Since 1987 world production is reduced under the Montreal Protocol and banned in most countries.
  • 1929 – The Swann Chemical Company develops polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) to transform coolant use. Research in the 1960s revealed PCBs to be potent carcinogens. Banned from production in the US 1976, probably 1 million tons of PCBs were manufactured in total globally.


  • 1930-1940 – The Dust Bowl , widespread land degradation in the North American prairie.
  • 1930 – World human population reached 2 billion. [9]
  • 1933 – Legislation on Animal rights adopted, Germany. [15]
– Publication of Game Management by Aldo Leopold .
  • 1934 – Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act .
  • 1935 – Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act .
– The Wilderness Society is founded.
  • 1936 – The National Wildlife Federation is founded.
  • 1939 – The insecticidal properties of DDT discovered by Paul Hermann Müller , who was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his efforts. The first ban on its use came in 1970.


  • 1947 – Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
– Defenders of Wildlife founded.
  • 1948 – World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. Founded in 1948, its headquarters is located in Gland, Switzerland .
  • 1949 – First known dioxin exposure incident, in a Nitro, West Virginia herbicide production plant. Extensively used by the British during the Malayan Emergency and the US during the Vietnam War 1961 – 1971 as Agent Orange . Production ban in the US on some component from 1970.
– Aldo Leopold Publishers In Sand County Almanac


  • 1951 – The Nature Conservancy is an environmental organization founded in the United States.
– World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established by the United Nations.
– Drinking water fluoridation becomes an official policy of the US Public Health Service to reduce tooth decay, soon followed by other countries.
  • 1954 – The first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid at Obninsk , Soviet Union on June 27th. The first substantial accident happened on October 10, 1957 in Windscale , England.
– Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act
  • 1955 – Air Pollution Control Act
  • 1956 – Minamata disease , a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
– Fish and Wildlife Act .
  • 1958 – Mauna Loa Observatory Initiates Monitoring of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) levels. The time series eventually becomes the main reference on global atmospheric change .


  • 1960 – World human population reached 3 trillion. [9]
– Mobilization in France to preserve the Vanoise National Park in the Alps (Val d’Isère, Tignes, etc.) from an important touristic project. The park itself was created three years later, in 1963, and was the first French natural park.
– Wallace Stegner writes the Wilderness Letter , credited with helping lead to the Wilderness Act . [16]
– Federal Water Pollution Control Act
  • 1961 – World Wildlife Fund (WWF) registered as a charitable trust in Morges , Switzerland, an international organization for conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment.
  • 1962 – Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring .
– Murray Bookshin publishes Our Synthetic Environment
– The first White House Conservation Conference takes place.
  • 1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is signed by the US, the UK and the USSR
– Clean Air Act
  • 1964 – Norman Borlaug takes position as director of the International Wheat Improvement Program in Texcoco , Mexico. The program leads to the Green Revolution .
– Wilderness Act .
– United States Postal Service releases John Muir stamp.
  • 1965 – In the Storm King case, a judge rules aesthetic impacts That Could Be Deciding whether regarded in Consolidated Edison Could demolish a mountain, a landmark case in environmental law .
– Northeast Blackout of 1965
– Water Quality Act
– Solid Waste Disposal Act
– Amendments to the Clean Air Act
  • 1966 – National Wildlife Refuge System Act .
– Fur Seal Act .
– National Historic Preservation Act
– Air inversion in New York City
– 1966 Palomares B-52 crash
– Ralph Nader publishes Unsafe at Any Speed
  • 1967 – Environmental Defense Fund founded.
– Torrey Canyon oil spill
– Amendments to the Clean Air Act.
– Apollo 1 fire
  • 1968 – The Apollo 8 picture of earthrise .
– National Trails System Act .
– Wild and Scenic Rivers Act .
– Paul R. Ehrlich Publishes The Population Bomb .
– Zero Population Growth founded.
– UNESCO hosts the Paris Biosphere Conference, which would ultimately result in the creation of the Man and the Biosphere Program
– Club of Rome founded.
  • 1969 – National Environmental Policy Act Including the first requirements is Environmental impact assessment .
– Accidental pollution of the Rhine in Europe, by 500 liters of Endosulfan , a kind of insecticide. The river was contaminated on more than 600 km and more than 20 million fish died. [17]
– The Icelandic summer-spawning herring stock collapses as a result of a combination of high fishing pressure and deteriorating environmental conditions. From being white stock was That Was distributed over wide areas in the North Atlantic , the stock Was Reduced to a small stock in Norwegian coastal waters. International efforts have begun to rebuild the stock.
– Category 5 Hurricane Camille caused damage and destruction across the Gulf Coast of the United States.
– Friends of the Earth founded.
– 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill
– Cuyahoga River Fire
– Food and Drug Administration bans sodium cyclamate and places limits on the use of monosodium glutamate
– René Dubos publishes So Human an Animal
– Ecologist Frank Fraser Darling is invited to give the Reith Lectures .


  • 1970 – Earth Day – April 22. Millions of people gather in the United States for the first Earth day organized by Gaylord Nelson , train senator of Wisconsin, and Denis Hayes , Harvard graduate student.
– US Environmental Protection Agency established.
– Francis A. Schaeffer publishes Pollution and the Death of Man .
– Arne Næss leads the nonviolent civil disobedience protest against damming of the Mardalsfossen waterfall, later publishing on the deep ecology philosophy.
– Center for Science in the Public Interest Founded.
– Environmental Action founded.
– League of Conservation Voters founded.
– Natural Resources Defense Council founded.
– Norman Borlaug , the father of the Green Revolution , wins the Nobel Peace Prize .
– A Sand County Almanac by Aldo Leopold is reissued.
– Occupational Safety and Health Act
– Public Interest Research Group founded.
  • 1971 – The international environmental organization Greenpeace founded in Vancouver, Canada. Greenpeace has developed and regional offices in 41 countries worldwide.
– International Institute for Environment and Development established in London, UK. One offshoot is the World Resources Institute with its biannual report World Resources since 1984.
– Nonprofit Keep America Beautiful launches the nationwide ” Crying Indian ” public service television advertisement, reaching nearly every American household.
– Public Citizen founded.
– Calvert Cliffs ‘ Coordinating Committee, Inc. v. United States Atomic Energy Commission
  • 1972 – The Conference on the Human Environment , held in Stockholm , Sweden 5 to 16 June, the first of a series of world environmental conferences.
– United Nations Environment Program founded as a result of the Stockholm conference.
– the Oslo Convention is dumping waste at sea , later merged with the Paris Convention is land-based sources of marine pollution into the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic .
– The Club of Rome publishes its report Limits to Growth , which has sold 30 million copies in more than 30 translations, making it the best selling environmental book in world history.
– Marine Mammal Protection Act .
– Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (also known as Ocean Dumping Act).
– Noise Control Act .
– Clean Water Act .
– Coastal Zone Management Act .
– The Blue Marble photograph
– Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) – Major Amendments
– (June 14) After seven months of hearings, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has most uses of DDT . [18]
– The Trust for Public Land founded.
– Values ​​Party founded.
– A Blueprint for Survival published.
  • 1973 – OPEC announces oil embargo against United States.
– World Conservation Union (IUCN) meeting of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Wild Fauna and Flora Species ( CITES )
– Endangered Species Preservation Act .
– Schumacher EF publishes Small Is Beautiful .
– Cousteau Society founded.
  • 1974 – Chlorofluorocarbons are first hypothesized to cause ozone thinning.
– National Reserves Management Act.
– World human population reached 4 trillion. [9]
– State Natural Heritage Program Network launched in the US.
  • 1975 – Energy Policy and Conservation Act .
  • 1976 – Dioxin accidental release in Seveso , Italy on 10 July, killing animals and traumatizing the population.
– Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
– Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
  • 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act .
– Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act.
– Abalone Alliance founded.
– Sea Shepherd Conservation Society founded.
– New York City blackout of 1977
– Ekofisk oil field spill.
– US admits to neutron bomb testing.
  • 1978 – Brominated flame-retardant replaces PCBs as the major chemical flame retardant. These methods are available in the breast cancer 1998. First ban on use in the EU 2004.
– Love Canal contamination revealed.
– Three Mile Island accident
– Amoco Cadiz oil spill
– Samuel Epstein publishes The Politics of Cancer
– David Ehrenfeld publishes The Arrogance of Humanism
– Offshore drilling begins off the coast of New Jersey
  • 1979 – The Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution is established to reduce air pollutant emissions and acid rain .
– Three Mile Island , the worst nuclear power accident in US history.
– Hans Jonas Publishes The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of Ethics for the Technological Age .
– Supersonic airliner Concorde is poised to be used for its sonic boom and the potential for its engine exhaust to damage the ozone layer. The last regular flight in 2003.
– Fifth largest oil spill ever when the SS Atlantic Empress collides with Aegean Captain off Trinidad and Tobago


  • 1980 – Superfund (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act or CERCLA)
– Earth First! founded
– The Global 2000 Report to the President
– International Union for Conservation of Nature publishes its World Conservation Strategy
– William R. Catton, Jr. publishes Overshoot: The Ecological Basis of Revolutionary Change
– Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act
– Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980
  • 1981 – Lois Gibbs founds the Citizens’ Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste
  • 1982 – Coastal Barrier Resources Act .
– United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( UNCLOS ) is signed on December 10th at Montego Bay. Part XII of which significantly developed port-state control of pollution from ships.
– Bat Conservation International founded.
– Co-op America founded.
– Earth Island Institute founded.
– Rocky Mountain Institute founded.
– Sewergate
– World Charter for Nature
– Nuclear Waste Policy Act
– Evacuation of Times Beach, Missouri
  • 1984 – Bhopal disaster in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh ( methyl isocyanate leakage).
– Green Committees of Correspondence founded.
– North America Bioregional Congress founded.
– Brundtland Commission appointed.
– 1984-1985 famine in Ethiopia
– Worldwatch Institute publishes its first State of the World report.
  • 1985 – Rainforest Action Network founded.
– Chemical leak in Institute, West Virginia
– Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior
– Antarctic ozone hole discovered.
– FDA approved bovine somatotropin
  • 1986 – Chernobyl , world’s worst nuclear power accident occurs at a plant in Ukraine.
– Emergency Wetlands Resources Act .
– Tetraethyllead phase-out was completed in the US.
– Northern Rivers Rerouting Project abandoned by the USSR government.
  • 1987 – World human population reached 5 billion. [9]
– The Report of the Brundtland Commission , Our Common Future on Sustainable Development , is published.
– Conservation International founded.
– First Debt-for-Nature Swap
– First meeting of the US Greens
– Montreal Protocol opened for signature.
– National Appliance Energy Conservation Act
  • 1988 – Ocean Dumping Ban Act .
– Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to assess the “risk of human-induced climate change “.
– Student Environmental Action Coalition founded.
– Lawsuit brought to you by Environmental Defense Fund results in McDonald ‘s approval to use biodegradable containers.
– Alternative Motor Fuels Act
  • 1989 – Exxon Valdez creates largest oil spill in US history.
– Montreal Protocol is That substances deplete the ozone layer were entered into power on January 1. Since Then, It has Undergone five revisions, in 1990 (London), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal) and 1999 ( Beijing).
– affected by protests by Kirishi residents, the USSR Supreme Soviet decided to close the country’s paraffin -fed single-cell protein plants. [19]


  • 1990 – National Environmental Education Act .
– European Environment Agency was established by EEC Regulation 1210/1990 and became operational in 1994. It is headquartered in Copenhagen , Denmark.
– The IPCC has been completed and served by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
– Clean Air Act – major amendment
– Redwood Summer
– Dolphin safe label introduced.
  • 1991 – The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October. The agreement provides for the protection of the environment and environmental protection assessments, waste management, and protected areas. It prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific.
– World’s worst oil spill OCCURS in Kuwait During war with Iraq .
– Kuwaiti oil fires
– Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established by donor governments.
  • 1992 – The Earth Summit , held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, was unannounced for a United Nations conference, in terms of both its size and its scope.
– United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ouvert for signing is 9 May ahead of the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.
– The international Convention on Biological Diversity opened for signature on 5 June in connection with the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.
– World Oceans Day began on June 8 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.
– The Canadian government closed all over the sea fishing grounds due to insufficient recovery of the stock.
– Ireland’s Environmental Protection Agency established.
– The metaphor Ecological footprint is coined by William Rees .
  • 1993 – The Great Flood of 1993 was one of the most destructive floods in the United States involving Missouri and Mississippi river valleys.
  • 1994 – United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification .
– The first genetically modified food crop released to the market. It remains a strongly controversial environmental issue .
  • 1995 – Scotland’s Environmental Protection Agency is established.
  • 1996 – Western Shield , A Wilderness Conservation Project is started in Western Australia, and through successful work of several national, international, and international ( IUCN ) Endangered Species Lists.
  • 1997 – July, US Senate unanimously passed by a 95-0 vote on the Byrd-Hagel Resolution, which stated that the United States should not be signatory to any protocol that did not include binding targets and schedules for developing nations and industrialized nations.
– The Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in Kyoto, Japan in December. It is actually an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Countries that ratify this protocol to reduce their emissions from carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases .
  • 1999 – World human population reached 6 trillion. [9]

21st century

  • 2001 – US rejects the Kyoto Protocol .
– The IPCC releases the IPCC Third Assessment Report .
  • 2002 – Earth Summit , held in Johannesburg at the United Nations conference.
  • 2003 – The world’s largest reservoir, the Three Gorges Dam begins filling 1 June.
– European heat wave resulting in the early death of at least 35,000 people.
  • 2004 – 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami affects coutries surrounding the Indian Ocean, killing nearly a quarter of a million people.
– FBI initiates Operation Backfire – an anti-terrorist law enforcement operation against “Eco-Radicals.”
  • 2005 – Hurricanes Katrina , Rita , and Wilma cause widespread destruction and environmental harm to coastal communities in the US Gulf Coast region.
– The Kyoto Protocol came into force on February 16 following ratification by Russia on November 18, 2004.
  • 2006 – Former US Vice President Al Gore releases An Inconvenient Truth , a documentary that describes global warming . The next year, Gore is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (jointly with the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change ) for this and related efforts.
– The BBC’s “Climate Chaos” season includes Are We Changing Planet Earth? , a two-part investigation into global warming by David Attenborough .
– The Stern Review is published. The British Prime Minister, Tony Blair , says that it shows that scientific evidence of global warming has been “overwhelming” and its consequences “disastrous”.
– World human population reached 6.5 billion [20]
  • 2007 – The IPCC releases the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report .
— Power Shift 2007 – the first National Youth Climate Conference, held in College Park, MD and Washington, D.C. November 2–5, 2007. Power Shift 2007: The Energy Action Coalition saw over 5,000 youth converge in Washington, D.C. to build their movement, lobby congress, and make a statement about the way youth feel about Global Warming.
  • 2009 — Power Shift 2009 – The Energy Action Coalition hosted the second national youth climate conference to be held at the Washington Convention Center from February 27 to March 2, 2009. The conference aims to attract more than 10,000 students and young people and will include a Lobby Day.
  • 2010 – Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.
  • 2011 – United Nations designates that world’s population reached 7 billion .
  • 2014 – The IPCC releases the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report .

See also

  • Carbon capture and storage (timeline)
  • Environmental issue
  • Filmography of environmentalism
  • List of environmental issues
  • Timeline of the New Zealand environment


  1. Jump up^ Aboul-Enein, H. Yousuf; Zuhur, Sherifa (2004), Islamic Rulings on Warfare, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, Diane Publishing Co., Darby PA, p. 22, ISBN  9781584871774
  2. Jump up^ Gari, L. (November 2002), “Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century”, Environment and History8 (4): 475–488, doi:10.3197/096734002129342747
  3. Jump up^ Scott, S. P. (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, OCLC 580060576
  4. Jump up^ Artz, F. B. (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages (Third ed.), University of Chicago Press, pp. 148–150, OCLC 390600
  5. Jump up^ David Urbinato (Summer 1994). “London’s Historic ‘Pea-Soupers'”. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
  6. Jump up^ “Deadly Smog”. PBS. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2006-08-02.
  7. Jump up^ “Nature Reserves, Laurissilva Forest and Ecological Parks of Madeira”. Madeira Live. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
  8. Jump up^ Recently Extinct Animals – Species Info – Dodo
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f United Nations Population Fund moves Day of 6 Billion based on new population estimates“. Population Connection. 1998-10-28. Archived from the original on 2006-02-20. Retrieved 2006-03-11.
  10. Jump up^ Coates,Peter. Nature: Western Attitudes Since Ancient Times. Polity Press, 1998. (Pg. 163).
  11. Jump up^ Boardman, Philip. The Worlds of Patrick Geddes. Routledge, 1978 (pg. 33).
  12. Jump up^ http://www.physorg.com/pdf83678030.pdf
  13. Jump up^ https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Arrhenius/
  14. Jump up^ http://www.worldbank.org/transport/publicat/b09.pdf
  15. Jump up^ Nazi Germany and Animal Rights
  16. Jump up^ stegner100.com Stegner Centennial Utah Web site. Retrieved 2-24-09.
  17. Jump up^ “Environmental movement” article in the French Encyclopedia Universalis
  18. Jump up^ DDT Regulatory History: A Brief Survey (to 1975), U.S. EPA, July 1975.
  19. Jump up^ KIRISHI: A GREEN SUCCESS STORY? (Johnson’s Russia List, Dec. 19, 2002). Original source: Olga Tsepilova, “V malom industrial’nom gorode Rossii” [In a Small Industrial City in Russia], Pro et Contra, Vol. 7, No. 1, Winter 2002, pp. 68–83.
  20. Jump up^ David, Leonard (2006-02-25). “World population hits 6.5 billion”. MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-04-19.

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