Syriza

The Coalition of the Radical Left [15] ( Greek : Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς , translit  Synaspismós Rizospastikís Aristerás ), mostly known by the syllabic abbreviation Syriza(a Greek adverb meaning “from the roots” or “radically”, [16] and sometimes stylized SY.RIZ.A. , Greek : ΣΥΡΙΖΑ , pronounced [siɾiza] ), is a left-wing political party in Greece , founded in 2004 as a coalition of left-wing and radical left parties. It is the largest party in theHellenic Parliament , with party chairman Alexis Tsipras serving as Prime Minister of Greece from 26 January 2015 to 20 August 2015 and from 21 September 2015 to present.

The party colors are red (left-wing politics), green (green politics), and purple (social movements). [17] The current leader of the party and Prime Minister is Alexis Tsipras .

History

Formation

Although Syriza was launched before the 2004 legislative election , the roots of the process can be traced back to “Space for Dialogue for the Unity and Common Action of the Left” ( Greek : Χώρος Διαλόγου για την Ενότητα και Κοινή Δράση της Αριστεράς ) in 2001. [18] The “Space” was made up of various organizations of the Greek Left that, despite different ideological and historical backgrounds, had shared common political action in several important issues that had arisen in Greece at the end of the 1990s, such as the Kosovo War , privatizations , social and civil rights, [19] etc.

The “Space” provided by:

  • Against the neoliberal reform of the pension and social security systems
  • Opposition to new anti-terrorism legislation
  • The preparation of the Greek participation at the 2001 international demonstration in Genoa . [20]
  • Review of the role of the European Union and the redetermination of Greece’s position on it.

Even though the “Space” was not a political organization, purpose Rather year endeavor to bring together the parts and organisms That Attended, it gave birth to Some electoral alliances for the local elections of 2002 , [21] The Most successful being white the one led by Manolis Glezos for the super-prefecture of Athens – Piraeus . The “Space” also contributed to the Greek Social Forum, [22] part of the larger European Social Forum .

2004 general election

The defining moment for the birth of Syriza came with the legislative election of 2004 . Most of the participants of the “Space” sought to develop a common platform that could lead to an electoral alliance . [23] This led to the eventual formation of the Coalition of the Radical Left, in January 2004. [24]

The parts that had formed the Coalition of the Radical Left in January 2004 were the:

  • Coalition of Left, of Movements and Ecology (Synaspismos or SYN)
  • Renewing Communist Ecological Left (AKOA)
  • Internationalist Workers Left (DEA)
  • Movement for the United in Action Left (KEDA) (a splinter group of the Communist Party of Greece )
  • Active Citizens (a Political Organization with Manolis Glezos )
  • Other independent left-wing groups or activists

Although the Communist Organization of Greece (KOE) had participated in the “Space”, it was decided to take part in the Coalition. why? [25]

In the election, the coalition gathered 241,539 votes (3.3% of the total) and elected six members to parliament. All six were members of Synaspismos, the largest of the coalition parties. This led to much tension within the coalition.

Crisis and revitalization

Former President of SYRIZA, Alekos Alavanos , speaking in Athens.

After the 2004 election, the smaller parties accused Yannis Banias of the AKOA could take his seat. [26] Tension built up and resulted in the split of the Internationalist Workers Left and the formation of Kokkino , both of which remained within the coalition. The frame of the crisis in SYRIZA was the reluctance of Synaspismos to adopt and maintain the political agreement for a clear denial of ” center-left politics”. quote needed ]

Three months after the 2004 legislative elections, Synaspismós thing to run independently of the rest of the coalition for the 2004 European elections and some of the smaller parts of the coalition supported the feminist Women for Another Europe ( Greek : Γυναίκες για μια Άλλη Ευρώπη ) list . [27]

The crisis ended in December 2004 with the 4th convention of Synaspismos, when a large majority within the party voted for the continuation of the coalition. [28] This change of attitude Was further Top Intensified with the election of Alekos Alavanos, a staunch supporter of the coalition, [29] as president of Synaspismos, after-icts form leader, Nikos Konstantopoulos , stepped down.

The coalition was further strengthened by the organization in May 2006 of the 4th European Social Forum in Athens , and by a number of largely successful election campaigns, such as those in Athens and Piraeus, during the 2006 local elections . The coalition ticket in the municipality of Athens was headed by Alexis Tsipras , proposed by Alavanos who declared Synaspismos’ “opening to the new generation”.

2007 legislative election

On 16 September 2007, Syriza gained a vote in the 2007 Greek legislative election . Opinion polls had already indicated that the Coalition was expected to make significant gains in the election, with predictions ranging from 4% to 5% of the electorate. [30]

Prior to the election, on 22 June, the parties to the agreement. The Coalition of the Coalition of the Radical Left, the Coalition of the Coalition, and the Coalition of the Coalition .

The Coalition of 2007 has also expanded from its original composition in 2004. On 20 June 2007, the Communist Organization of Greece (KOE) announced its participation in the Coalition. [31] On August 21, the EnvironmentalistEcological Intervention (Greek: Οικολογική Παρέμβαση ) also joined, [32] and on 22 August 2007, the Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) also announced its participation in the Coalition. [33]

On September 2, the Areios Pagos refused to include the title of DIKKI in the Syriza electoral alliance, claiming that the internal procedures followed by DIKKI were flawed. This was criticized by SYRIZA and DIKKI. [34]

2007-2011

Six party leaders’ televised debate ahead of the 2009 Greek legislative elections. Alexis Tsipras , the leader of Syriza, is in the center.

On 27 November 2007, Alavanos announced that, for private reasons, he would not be seeking to renew his presidency of Synaspismos. [35] The 5th party congress of Synaspismas elected Alexis Tsipras , a municipal councillor for the municipality of Athens , as party president on 10 February 2008. Alavanos retained the parliamentary leadership of Syriza, however, as Tsipras was not at that time a member of parliament. Tsipras achieved considerable popularity with the Greek electorate, which led to a significant increase in support for Syriza in polls – up to 18 percent at its peak. [36]

At the end of June 2008, Xekinima announced that it would join the coalition. [37]

During the run-up to the 2009 European elections Syriza, amid turbulent internal developments, saw its poll share decrease to 4.7%, with the result that only one SYRIZA candidate (Nikos Hountis) was elected to the European Parliament. This is a new chapter in the history of President Alekos Alavanos from his seat in the Greek parliament, a resignation that was, however, withdrawn a few days later. [38]

In the 2009 legislative election Held on 4 October 2009, SYRIZA won 4.6% of the vote (Slightly below showing ict 2007), returning 13 MPs to the Hellenic Parliaments. The incoming MPs included Tsipras, who took over Syriza’s parliamentary leader.

In June 2010, the Ananeotiki (“Renewing Wing”) of radical social democrats in Synapses split away from the party, at the same time leaving Syriza. This reduced Syriza’s parliamentary group to 9 MPs. The 4 MPs who left a new party, the Democratic Left (DIMAR).

2012 general elections

Inauguration of Lucas Papademos in November 2011, Syriza gained popularity in the polls, as did the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) and DIMAR. Opinion polls in the run-up to the May 2012 election showed Syriza with 10-12% support. [39] The Minor Unitary Movement ( PASOK splinter group) also joined the coalition in March 2012.

In first , the party polled over 16% and quadrupled its number of seats, becoming the second largest party in parliament, behind New Democracy (ND). [40] After the election, Tsipras was invited by the president of Greece to try to form a government, but failed to form a government owing to a lack of parliamentary numbers. Subsequently, Tsipras rejected a proposal by the president to join a coalition government with the center-right and center-left parties. [41]

For the second 2012 legislative election on 17 June 2012, SYRIZA re-registered as a single party (adding the “United Social Front” moniker) instead of a coalition, in order to be eligible to receive the 50 “bonus” seats given to the largest polling party under the Greek electoral system. [42] However, Syriza increased its share of the vote to just under 27%, New Democracy polled 29.8% and claimed the bonus. With 71 seats, Syriza became the main opposition party to a coalition government of ND, PASOK, and DIMAR. Tsipras subsequently formed the Shadow Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras in July 2012. [43]

Unitary party

In July 2013, a Syriza congress was held to discuss the organization of the party. Important results include a decision in principle to dissolve the participating parties in Syriza in favor of a unitary party. However, they have been relocated to allow for their positions. Tsipras was confirmed as chairman with 74% of the vote. Delegatesριστερή Πλάτφορμα, led by Panayiotis Lafazanis, securedριστερή Πλάτφορμα, 30% (60) of the seats on Syriza’s central committee. [44] A modest success was also claimed by the “Communist Platform” (Greek section of the International Marxist Tendency), who managed to get two members elected to the party’s central committee.[45]

2014 elections

Local elections and elections to the European Parliament were held in May 2014. In the 2014 European elections on May 25, 2014, Syriza reached first place with 26.5% of vote, ahead of New Democracy at 22.7%. The position in the local elections was less clear-cut, due to the number of “non-party” and independent contending for office. Syriza’s success was the election of Rena Dourou to the Attica Regional governorship with 50.8% of the second-round vote over the incumbent Yiannis Sgouros. The biggest disappointment was the failure of Gabriel Sakellaridis to win the Athens Mayoralty election, being beaten in the second ballot by Giorgos Kaminis with 51.4% to his 48.6%.

Thessaloniki Program

Main article: Thessaloniki Program

On September 13, 2014, Syriza unveiled the Thessaloniki Program, a set of policy proposals for its central demands for economic and political restructuring. [46]

January 2015 election

For more details on this topic, see Greek legislative election, January 2015 .

Syriza party chairman and Prime Minister of Greece , Alexis Tsipras

After the Hellenic Parliament failed to elect a new President of State by 29 December 2014, the parliament was dissolved and a snap legislative election was scheduled for 25 January 2015. Syriza had a lead in opinion polls, but its anti-austerity position worried investors eurozone supporters. [47] The party’s chief economic advisor, John Milios , has gone downplayed fears that Greece under a Syriza government would exit the eurozone , [48] while shadow development minister George Stathakis disclosed the party’s intention to crack down on Greek oligarchs if it wins the election . [49]In the election, Syriza defeated the incumbent New Democracy and became the largest party in the Hellenic Parliament, receiving 36.3% of the vote and 149 out of 300 seats. [50]

President Francois Hollande Who stressed Greco-French “friendship,” all over Europe, including Pablo Iglesias Turrión of Spain’s Podemos and Katja Kipping of Germany’s Die Linke . German government official Hans-Peter Friedrich, however, said: “The Greeks have the right to vote for whom they want. [51] The Financial Times and Radio Free Europe reported on Syriza’s ties with Russia and extensive correspondence with the Russian political scientist Aleksandr Dugin .[52] [53] Early in the SYRIZA-led government of Greece, the Russian President Vladimir Putin and Alexis Tsipras concluded a face-to-face meeting by announcing an agreement on boosting investment between the two nations. [54] Alexis Tsipras also said that Greece would seek to enter into relations between Russia and EU through European institutions. Tsipras also said that Greece was not in favor of Western sanctions imposed on Russia, adding that it risked the beginning of another Cold War . [55] [56]

Government formation

  • See also Tenth austerity package (Greece) , Eleventh austerity package (Greece) , Twelfth austerity package (Greece) , Thirteenth austerity package (Greece)

On 26 January 2015, Tsipras and Independent Greeks (ANEL) leader Panos Kammenos agreed to form a coalition government of Syriza and ANEL, with Tsipras becoming Prime Minister of Greece [57] and Greek-Australian economist Yanis Varoufakis appointed Minister of Finance and Panos Kammenos appointed Minister of Defense . [58] In July 2015, Yanis Varoufakis was replaced by Euclid Tsakalotos as Minister of Finance.

Party split and September 2015 election

For more details on this topic, see Greek legislative election, September 2015 .

Following the acceptance by Tsipras and the Syriza government of the third Memorandum with the European Union on Greece ‘s debt, 25 Syriza MPs, the leftist parties and the Leftist Party, and the Internationalist Workers Leftfaction, split to form a new party Popular Unity (Greek: Λαϊκή Ενότητα, Laïkí Enótita ). They were led by Panagiotis Lafazanis . [59]

Having lost his majority in the Greek Parliament, Tsipras resigned as Prime Minister on 20 August 2015, and called a fresh election [60] on 20 September 2015.

Although polls suggest a close contest between Syriza and New Democracy, in the event Syriza led ND by 7%, winning 145 seats. Unity polled below the 3% threshold and therefore had no parliamentary representation. Tsipras renewed Syriza’s previous coalition agreement with the Independent Greeks, giving the new government 155 seats out of 300 in the Greek Parliament.

Cabinet members

Main article: Second Cabinet of Alexis Tsipras

Members of the new Cabinet were sworn in on 23 September 2015: [61]

  • Alexis Tsipras – Prime Minister
  • Giannis Dragasakis – Deputy Prime Minister
  • Efklidis Tsakalotos – Finance
  • Giorgos Stathakis – Economy, Development and Tourism
  • Georgios Katrougalos – Labor and Social Affairs
  • Nikos Toskas – Citizens’ Protection
  • Nikos Mouzalas – Immigration Policy
  • Panos Skourletis – Environment and Energy
  • Nikos Kotzias – Foreign Affairs
  • Panagiotis Kouroumblis – Interior
  • Nikos Paraskevopoulos – Justice, Transparency & Human Rights
  • Aristides Baltas – Culture and Sports
  • Nikos Filis – Education, Research and Religious Affairs
  • Andreas Xanthos – Health and Welfare
  • Christos Spirtzis – Infrastructure, Transport and Networks
  • Thodoris Dritsas – Maritime Affairs and Island Policy
  • Vangelis Apostolou – Rural Development and Food
  • Alekos Flambouraris – Coordinating Government Operations
  • Nikos Pappas – State
  • Olga Gerovassili – Government Spokesperson

The Ministry of Defense was filled by a non-Syriza nominee, Panos Kammenos of the Independent Greeks (ANEL).

Form constitute parties

Coalition supporters in a 2007 rally. Flags of Synaspismos, AKOA, DIKKI, and Kokkino can be seen, as well as those of the coalition itself.

Syriza as a unitary party is formed by the following: [62]

  • Active Citizens ( Ενεργοί Πολίτες ): democratic socialism , patriotism
  • Anticapitalist Political Group (ΑΠΟ): Communism , Trotskyism , Anti-Capitalism
  • Citizens’ Association of Riga (Velestinli): patriotism , internationalism , democracy , ecology , social justice [63]
  • Coalition of Left, of Movements and Ecology (Synaspismos or SYN): democratic socialism , [64] eco-socialism , [5] Eurocommunism , [65] environmentalism , [64] feminism [64]
  • Communist Organization of Greece (KOE): communism , maoism
  • Communist Platform of SYRIZA: Greek section of the International Marxist Tendency , Communism , Trotskyism [66]
  • Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI): left-wing nationalism , socialism , [67] Euroscepticism [68]
  • Ecosocialists of Greece : eco-socialism , green politics
  • Internationalist Workers’ Left (DEA): Revolution Socialism , Marxism , Trotskyism
  • Movement for the United in Action Left (KEDA): Communism , Marxism-Leninism
  • New Fighter : democratic socialism , social democracy
  • Radical Left Group Roza : Luxemburgism , feminism
  • Radicals ( Ριζοσπάστες ): democratic socialism , patriotism
  • Red ( Κόκκινο ): communism , Trotskyism
  • Renewing Communist Ecological Left (AKOA): Eurocommunism , environmentalism
  • Union of the Democratic Center (EDIK): radicalism , social liberalism , centrism
  • Unitary Movement : democratic socialism , social democracy
  • Also a number of independent leftist activists

Ideology

The Syriza coalition was founded by a broad array of thirteen groups and independent politicians, including social democrats , democratic socialists , left-wing patriots , feminists , anti-capitalists , centrists , and environmentalistgroups; as well as Marxist-Leninists , Maoists , Trotskyists , Eurocommunists , Luxemburgists , and eurosceptics . Furthermore, despite its secular ideology, [69] many members are Christians who are in favor of the privileges of the state-sponsoredOrthodox Church of Greece . [70] From 2013 the coalition became a unitary party, although it retained its name with the addition of “United Social Front”.

Syriza had been characterized as an anti-establishment party, [71] [72] whose success has been “shock-waves across the EU “. [73] Although it has abandoned its old identity, that of a hard-left protest voice, becoming more populist in character, and stating that it will not abandon the eurozone , [74] its chairman Alexis Tsipras has declared that the “euro is not my fetish “. [75] The Vice President of the European Parliament and Syriza MEP Dimitrios Papadimoulisstated that Greece should “be a respectable member of the European Union and the euro zone” [76] and that “there is absolutely no case for a Grexit “. [77] Although Alexis Tsipras clarified that Syriza “does not support any of Euroscepticism”, [78] at the same time, the party is seen as a mildly Eurosceptic force. [79] [80]

In July 2015, endorsed Lapavitsas Jeremy Corbyn ‘s campaign in the UK Labor Party leadership election . He said: “If he [Jeremy Corbyn] succeeds – and I hope he can – he’s exactly what Britain could do with, what the Labor Partycould do with. I think it would be a very important move for the rest of Europe and for It would be a boost to the kind of thinking that would be necessary in the rest of Europe, and it would be the best thing to come out of Europe for a long time. ” Marina Prentoulis, UK Spokesman for Syriza, said Corbyn’s election would make Labor “falling again”. She said the party’s defeat at the 2015 general electionIt was not possible to differentiate itself from the “neo-liberal message” of the Conservative Party that balances the books to the only way to fix the economy. [81]

Group of 53

The Group of 53, also known as 53+, is a faction within Syriza. The group was founded in mid-2014 and stands ideologically between the Left Platform and Tsipras core backers. Both Euclid Tsakalotos and Gabriel Sakellaridis are members of the group. Another member of the group was Tassos Koronakis, the former secretary of the Syriza Central Committee who resigned following the announcement of the snap elections in September 2015. [82]

Left Platform

See also: Popular Unity (Greece)

The Left Platform was a faction within Syriza, the ideologically situated on the far-left of the party. [82] In August 2015, 25 Left Platform MPs within the Syriza left and the party and formed Popular Unity to contest the snap elections. The grouping was led by Panagiotis Lafazanis . [83]

Election results

Hellenic Parliament

Election Hellenic Parliament Rank Government Leader
votes  % ± pp Seats won +/-
2004 A 241.539 3.3% 0.1

6/300

± 0 # 4 Opposition Nikos Konstantopoulos
2007 361.211 5.0% 1.7

14/300

8 # 4 Opposition Alekos Alavanos
2009 315.627 4.6% 0.4

13/300

1 # 5 Opposition Alexis Tsipras
05/2012 1061265 16.8% 12.2

52/300

39 # 2 Opposition Alexis Tsipras
06/2012 1655022 26.9% 10.1

71/300

19 # 2 Opposition Alexis Tsipras
01/2015 B 2245978 36.3% 8.5

149/300

78 1 Gov’t SYRIZA- ANELCoalition
Alexis Tsipras
09/2015 1925904 35.5% 0.8

145/300

4 1 Gov’t SYRIZA- ANELCoalition
Alexis Tsipras

A 2004 results are compared to the total Synaspismos in the 2000 election. 
B 01/2015 results are compared to the total totals for Syriza and OP totals in the 06/2012 election.

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election votes  % ± pp Seats won +/- Rank Leader
2009 240.898 4.7% 0.5

1/22

± 0 # 5 Alexis Tsipras
2014 1518608 26.6% 21.9

6/21

5 1 Alexis Tsipras

A 2009 results are compared to the total Synaspismos in the 2004 election.

Party leaders

# Leader Portrait Term of office Prime Minister
1 Alekos Alavanos 2004 February 10, 2008
2 Alexis Tsipras February 10, 2008 incumbent 2015
2015-

European parliament

SYRIZA held six seats in the European parliament .

  • Manolis Glezos
  • Sofia Sakorafa
  • Dimitris Papadimoulis
  • Stelios Kouloglou
  • Konstantina Kouneva
  • Konstantinos Chrysogonos

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  35. Jump up^ “Synaspismos press release” . Synaspismos. 27 November 2007 . Retrieved 17 May 2012 .
  36. Jump up^ “Governing new democracy still lead in Greece” . Angus Reid. March 5, 2008. Archived from the original on March 7, 2008 . Retrieved 26 September 2015 .
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  38. Jump up^ “Alavanos reverses decision” . HR-Net. 23 June 2009 . Retrieved 17 May 2012 .
  39. Jump up^ Next Greek legislative election
  40. Jump up^ Xypolia, Ilia (May 2012). “Sorry, folks..the wake is over” . London Progressive Journal . Retrieved 15 October 2012 .
  41. Jump up^ “Greek Radical Left Leader rejects coalition talks: official” . Reuters. May 13, 2012 . Retrieved 18 May 2012 .
  42. Jump up^ “Ενιαίο κόμμα ο ΣΥΡΙΖΑ (SYRIZA a single party)” (in Greek). Ta Nea . May 22, 2012.
  43. Jump up^ “Σκιώδη κυβέρνηση όρισε ο Αλέξης Τσίπρας”, madata.gr, 04 Ιουλίου 2012.
  44. Jump up^ “Tsipras still leading goal rifts remain” . Kathimerini . July 15, 2013.
  45. Jump up^ Papakonstantinou, Sofia. “Founding congress of SYRIZA: an opportunity for a much needed change of program and tactics” . In Defense of Marxism .
  46. Jump up^ TO BHMA International (15 September 2014). “Tsipras presents SYRIZA program at International Fair in Thessaloniki” . TO BHMA International . Retrieved 4 June 2015 .
  47. Jump up^ “Greece crisis: Europe on the edge over snap election” . BBC. December 30, 2014.
  48. Jump up^ Smith, Helena (23 December 2014). “SYRIZA’s chief economist plots a radical Greek evolution within the eurozone” . The Guardian.
  49. Jump up^ Hope, Kerin (6 January 2015). “SYRIZA to crack down on Greece’s oligarchs if it wins election” . Financial Times . Retrieved 7 January 2015 .
  50. Jump up^ Babington, Deepa; Maltezou, Renee. “Tsipras sworn in as Greece PM to fight bailout terms” . Reuters . Retrieved 26 January 2015 .
  51. Jump up^ Donahue, Patrick (26 January 2015). “Tsipras win draws French congratulations, German threat” . Kathimerini . Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  52. Jump up^ Jones, Sam; Hope, Kerin; Weaver, Courtney (28 January 2015). “Alarm bells ring over SYRIZA’s Russian links” . Financial Times .
  53. Jump up^ Coalson, Robert (28 January 2015). “New Greek Government Has Deep, Long-Standing Ties With Russian ‘Fascist’ Dugin” . RFERL .
  54. Jump up^ “Putin, Tsipras Agree on Boosting Investment Ties” . Bloomberg. 8 April 2015 . Retrieved 20 July 2015 .
  55. Jump up^ “Tsipras: Greece will seek to be between Russia and EU through European institutions” . RT. 8 April 2015 . Retrieved 20 July 2015 .
  56. Jump up^ “Greece’s Tsipras meets Putin in Moscow – as it happened” . The Guardian. 8 April 2015 . Retrieved 20 April 2015 .
  57. Jump up^ Helena Smith. “SYRIZA’s Tsipras sworn in after Greek government formed with rightwingers” . the Guardian . Retrieved 4 June 2015 .
  58. Jump up^ Phillip Inman. “Profile: Greece’s new finance minister Yanis Varoufakis” . the Guardian . Retrieved 4 June 2015 .
  59. Jump up^ “Greece crisis: Syriza rebels form new party” . BBC. August 21, 2015 . Retrieved 26 September 2015 .
  60. Jump up^ “Greece crisis: PM Tsipras Alexis quits and calls early polls” . BBC. August 20, 2015 . Retrieved 26 September 2015 .
  61. Jump up^ “New government to be sworn in Wednesday morning” .
  62. Jump up^ “Συνιστώσες” . Syriza. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013 . Retrieved 26 September 2015 .
  63. Jump up^ “Αντίρροπον Δέος” . Αντίρροπον Δέος .
  64. ^ Jump up to:c Magone, José M. (2003), The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration into the European Union , Praeger Publishers, p. 152
  65. Jump up^ Magone, José M. (2003), The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration into the European Union , Praeger Publishers, p. 151
  66. Jump up^ “Αρχική – Επανάσταση – Η δεκαπενθήμερη εφημερίδα της Κομμουνιστικής Τάσης του ΣΥΡΙΖΑ” .
  67. Jump up^ Anagnostou, Dia (2006), “Deepening Democracy or Defending the Nation? The Europeanization of Minority Rights and Greek Citizenship” , Politics and Policy in Greece , Routledge, p. 128
  68. Jump up^ “Greece: Directory” , Central and South-Eastern Europe 2004 , Europa Publications, p. 294, 2003
  69. Jump up^ Andy Dabilis,”Syriza Wants State Break With Church”,greekreporter.com, January 28, 2013
  70. Jump up^ “A pink shade of black” . The Economist . January 15, 2014 . Retrieved 18 January 2015 .
  71. Jump up^ “Tribunes and Patricians: Radical Fringe Parties in the 21st Century”(PDF) . carleton.ca. 2012.
  72. Jump up^ “Global Daily – Europe’s political risks” . ABN AMRO Insights .
  73. Jump up^ “Anti-establishment parties defy EU” . BBC News.
  74. Jump up^ “BBC News – Greek radical left SYRIZA prepared for power under Tsipras” . BBC News.
  75. Jump up^ “Αλ. Τσίπρας:” Το ευρώ δεν είναι φετίχ, ούτε εγώ Χάρι Πότερ ” ” . Proto Thema . May 1, 2014.
  76. Jump up^ Bianchi, Alfonso (29 December 2014). “Syriza: we are not an anti-European monster, we are explaining it to hawks and markets too (INTERVIEW)” . EUnews – European News Service . Retrieved 1 January2015 .
  77. Jump up^ Michalopoulos, Sarantis (17 December 2014). “SYRIZA reiterates its commitment to the eurozone” . EurActiv Greece . Retrieved 1 January2015 .
  78. Jump up^ TO BHMA International (7 May 2014). “Alexis Tsipras:” We do not support any sort of Euroscepticism ” ” . TO BHMA International .
  79. Jump up^ Richard Mylles. “Ukip is not the only Eurosceptic party on the rise, but the Union is safe for now” .
  80. Jump up^ “Euroscepticism Party in Greece during the Financial Crisis, Cases of SYRIZA and Chrysi Avgi” . Crisis Observatory. May 27, 2014 . Retrieved 26 September 2015 .
  81. Jump up^ Chan, Szu Ping (24 July 2015). “Jeremy Corbyn ‘is the best thing to come out of Britain’ says Greece ‘s hard left Syriza party . The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 15 July 2017 .
  82. ^ Jump up to:b Stamouli, Nektaria (26 August 2015). “Greece’s Alexis Tsipras Struggles to Keep Syriza Party Together”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  83. Jump up^ Bird, Mike (21 August 2015). “Greece’s election just split Syriza in two” . Business Insider . Retrieved 27 November 2015 .

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