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Spiritual ecology

Spiritual ecology is an emerging field in religion, conservation, and academia recognizing that there is a spiritual facet to all issues related to conservation , environmentalism , and earth stewardship . Proponents of Spiritual Ecology for the health of the earth and the environment.


Contributors in the field of Spiritual Ecology contend there are spiritual elements at the root of environmental issues. Those working in the arena of Spiritual Ecology further suggests that there is a critical need to recognize the spiritual dynamics of the root of environmental degradation. quote needed ]

The field of science and academia, religion and spirituality, and ecological sustainability. [1]

Despite the disparate arenas of study and practice, the principles of spiritual ecology are simple: In order to resolve such global issues, global warming, and over-consumption, we must consider and reassess our underlying attitudes and beliefs about the earth. , and our spiritual responsibilities towards the planet. [2] US Advisor on climate change, James Gustave Speth , said: “I used to think that I was thinking about environmental problems, I thought it was a problem. “The top environmental problems are selfishness, greed and apathy, and to deal with these needs of a cultural and spiritual transformation.” [3]

Thus, it is argued, ecological renewal and sustainability necessarily depends on spiritual awareness and an attitude of responsibility. Spiritual Ecologists this competi That includes Both the recognition of creation as sacred and Behaviors That honor That sacredness.

Recent Writings and Speeches of Pope Francis, particularly his May 2015 Encyclical, Laudato si ‘ , un prenaté de l’engagement des entrants de la presenters en la 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris [4] . The Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon , stated on December 4, 2015, that “Faith communities are vital for global efforts to address the climate challenge. They must respect the dimensions of climate change, and their obligation to the Earth’s fragile environment and our neighbors in need. ” [4]


Spiritual ecology identifies the Scientific Revolution -beginning the 16th century, and continuing through the Age of Enlightenment to the Industrial Revolution -a contributing to a critical shift in human understanding with reverberating effects on the environment. The radical expansion of collective consciousness into the era of rational science has included collective changes from experiencing Nature as a living, spiritual presence to a utilitarian means to an end . [5]

During the modern age, reason has been valued over faith, tradition, and revelation. Industrialized society replaced agricultural societies and the old ways of relating to seasons and cycles. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth of a globalized world, mechanized worldview, a collective sense of the sacred, and a lack of insatiable drive for scientific progress and material prosperity. [5]

Some in Spiritual Ecology argues that a pervasive patriarchal world-view, and a monotheistic religious orientation towards a transcendent divinity, is largely responsible for destructive attitudes about the earth, body, and the sacred nature of creation. [6] Thus, many identify the wisdom of indigenous cultures , for which the world is still considered as sacred, as a key to our current ecological prediction.

Spiritual ecology is a response to the values ​​and socio-political structures of recent centuries with their trajectory of intimacy with the earth and its sacred essence. It has been forming and developing as an intellectual and practice-oriented discipline for nearly a century. [7]

Spiritual ecology includes a vast array of people and practices that intertwine spiritual and environmental experience and understanding. Additionally, within the tradition is a deep, developing spiritual vision of a collective human / earth / divine evolution that is expanding consciousness beyond the dualities of human / earth, heaven / earth, mind / body. This belongs to the contemporary movement that recognizes the unity and interrelationship, or “interbeing,” the interconnectedness of all of creation.

Visionaries carrying this thread include Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), who founded the spiritual movement of anthroposophy, and described a “co-evolution of spirituality and nature” [8] and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin , a French Jesuit and paleontologist (1881-1955). ) who spoke of a transition in collective consciousness towards a consciousness of the divinity within each particle of life, even the most dense mineral. This shift includes the necessary dissolution of divisions between fields of study. “Science, philosophy and religion are bound to converge as they draw nearer to the whole.” [9]

Thomas Berry , the American Passionist priest known to ‘geologian’ (1914-2009), has been one of the most influential figures in this developing movement, with his stress on returning to a sense of wonder and reverence for the natural world. He shared and furthered Many of Teilhard ‘s views, Including the understanding humanoid That is not at the center of the universe, divine purpose integrated into a whole with icts own evolutionary path. This view is a reflection of the earth / human relationship: “The present urgency is to begin thinking about the whole planet, the integral earth community with all its human and other-than-human components.” [10]

More recently, leaders in the Engaged Buddhism movement, including Thich Nhat Hanh , also identify a need to return to a sense of self which includes the Earth. [11] Joanna Macy describes a collective shift – referred to as the ” Great Turning ” – which is not experienced as separate. [12] Sufi teacher Llewellyn Vaughan-Leesimilarly grounds his spiritual ecology work in the context of a collective evolutionary expansion towards oneness, bringing to the experience of earth and humanity – all life – as interdependent. In the vision and experience of oneness, the term “spiritual ecology” becomes, itself, redundant. What is earth-sustaining is spiritual; that which is spiritual honors a sacred earth. [13] [14]

An important element in the work of these contemporary teachers is the call for humanity’s full acceptance of responsibility for what we have done – physically and spiritually – to the earth. Only through acceptance of healing and transformation occur. [13] [14] [15]

Including the need for a spiritual response to the environmental crisis, Charles, Prince of Wales In His 2010 book Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World , writes: “A SPECIFICALLY mechanistic science HAS only recently ASSUMED a position of Such authority in the world … (and) not only has it prevented us from considering the world philosophically any more, our predominantly mechanistic way of looking at the world has also excluded our spiritual relationship with Nature. what we do to the Earth. ” [16] Prince Charles, who has promoted environmental awareness since the 1980s, [17]Continuing: “… by continuing to deny ourselves this profound, ancient, intimate relationship with Nature, I fear we are compounding our subconscious sense of alienation and disintegration, which is mirrored in the fragmentation and disruption of harmony. At the moment we are disrupting the teeming diversity of life and the ecosystems that sustain it-the forests and meadows, the woodland, moorland and fens, the oceans, rivers and streams. The degree of ‘disease’ we are causing the planet to be inseparable. [18]

In May 2015 Pope Francis’s Encyclical, “Laudato Si”: On Care for our Common Home, ” Endorsed the need for a spiritual and moral response to our environmental crisis, and thus implicitly brings the subject of spiritual ecology to the forefront of our present ecological debate. This encyclical recognizes that “The ecological crisis is essentially a spiritual problem,” [19] in line with the ideas of this developing field. American environmentalist, author, and journalist Bill McKibben, who has written extensively on the impact of global warming, says that Pope Francis has joined the ranks of its power with the scientific order. ” [20]

Scientist, environmentalist, and world leader in sustainable ecology David Suzuki also expresses the importance of the topic of ecological crisis: “The way we see the world shapes the way we treat it. of the earth, if not a river or a forest, or a forest is a forest, an opportunity-then we will treat each other with greater respect . “So is the challenge, to look at the world from a different perspective.” [21]

Historically we see the development of the traditional ideas and perspectives of spiritual ecology in the mystical arms of traditional religions and spiritual arms of environmental conservation. These ideas can be found in the evolution of the world and the experience of the world in which the dualities of the dissipation and dualities of the earth have been reduced and contributed to the destruction of the earth as “other” than spirit.

A Catholic nun Interviewed by Sarah MacFarland Taylor, author of the 2009 book, “Green Sisters: Spiritual Ecology” (Harvard University Press, 2009) , articulates this perspective of unity: “There is no division entre planting new fields and prayer.” [ 22]

Indigenous wisdom

In the field of spiritual ecology that has a distinct stream of experience in the history of the world. The term “indigenous” in this context refers to the fact that it is a native, original, and resident to a place, more specifically to societies that share and preserve ways of knowing the world in relation to the land. [23] For many Native traditions, the earth is the central spiritual context. [24] This principle is an attitude and an attitude of being in the world. [25] Spiritual ecology direct us to look at revered holders of these traditions in order to understand the source of our current ecological and spiritual crisis.

Features of Many Teachings include indigenous life as a Continual act of prayer and thanksgiving , knowledge and symbiotic relationship with an animate nature being white and aware of one’s action is future generations. Such understanding necessarily implies mutuality and reciprocity between people, earth and the cosmos.

The above historical trajectory is located predominantly in a Judeo-Christian European context, for it is within this context that humanity experienced the loss of the sacred nature of creation, with its devastating consequences. For example, with colonization , indigenous spiritual ecology Historically Was Replaced by year Imposed Western belief That land and the environment are commodities to be used and exploited, with exploitation of natural resources in the name of socio-economic Evolution. This perspective “… suggests that the value of the economic value of the land, with regard to economic value , and this served to further distance communities from their environment,” [26]often with “devastating consequences for indigenous people and nature around the world.” [27] [28] Research on early prehistoric human activity in the Quaternary extinction event , shows overhunting megafauna well before European colonization in North America, South America and Australia. [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] While this might be a bit of a doubt, it does not matter not negative the most recent devastating effects as referenced.

Along with the basic principles and behaviors advocated by spiritual ecology, some indigenous traditions hold the same evolutionary view articulated by the Western Spiritual Teachers listed above. The understanding of humanity evolving towards a state of unity and harmony with the earth after a period of discord and suffering is described in a number of prophecies around the globe. These include the White Buffalo prophecy of the Plains Indians, the prophecy of the Eagle and the Condor of the people of the Andes, and the Onondaga prophecies held and retold by Oren Lyons . [36] [37] [38]

Current trends

Spiritual ecology is developed largely in three arenas identified above: Science and Academia, Religion and Spirituality, and Environmental Conservation.

Science and academia

David Clark Rockefeller , Mary Evelyn Tucker , John Grim, Bron Taylor, and Roger S. Gottlieb. [39]

Mary Evelyn Tucker [40] and John Grim [41] are co-ordinators of Yale University’s Forum on Religion and Ecology, [42] an international multi-religious project exploring religious world-views, texts ethics and practices in order to broaden understanding of the complex

Steven C. Rockefeller is an author of numerous books about religion and the environment, and is professor emeritus of religion at Middlebury College . He played a leading role in the drafting of the Earth Charter . [43]

Roger S. Gottlieb [44] is a professor of Philosophy at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and author of over 100 articles and 16 books on environmentalism, religious life, contemporary spirituality, political philosophy, ethics, feminism, and the Holocaust.

Bron Taylor at the University of Florida “Dark Green Religion” to describe a set of beliefs and practices centered on the belief that nature is sacred. [45]

Other leaders in the field include: Leslie E. Sponsorship at the University of Hawaii , [46] Sarah McFarland Taylor at Northwestern University, [47] Mitchell Thomashow at Antioch University New England, and the Schumacher CollegePrograms. [48]

Within the field of science, spiritual ecology is emerging in arenas including Physics, Biology (see: Ursula Goodenough ), Consciousness Studies (see: Brian Swimme , California Institute of Integral Studies), Systems Theory (see: David Loy , Nondual Science Institute) , and Gaia Hypothesis , which was first articulated by James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis in the 1970s. quote needed ]

Another example is scientist and author Diana Beresford-Kroeger , a world-renowned expert in environmental chemistry, who brings together the fields of ethnobotany , horticulture , ecology , and spirituality in relation to the current ecological crisis and stewardship of the natural world. She says, “… the world, the gift of this world is fantastic and phenomenal. The molecular working of the world is extraordinary, the mathematics of the world is extraordinary … and science go together.” [49] [50]

Religion and ecology

Within many faiths, environmentalism is becoming an area of ​​study and advocacy. Pope Francis ‘May 2015 encyclical, Laudato si’ , offered a strong confirmation of spiritual ecology and its principles from within the Catholic Church. Additionally, over 150 leaders from various faiths signed a letter to the UN Climate Summit in Paris 2015, “Statement of Faith and Spiritual Leaders on the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP21 in Paris in December 2015,” recognizing the earth as “a gift “from God and Calling for Climate Action. These contemporary events are reflections of enduring themes coming from the fore in many religions.

Christian environmentalists emphasize the ecological responsibilities of all Christians as stewards of God’s earth, while contemporary Muslim religious ecology is inspired by Qur’anic themes, such as mankind being khalifa , or trustee of God on earth (2:30). There is also a Jewish ecological perspective based on the Bible and Torah, for example the laws of the sea (neither to destroy wantonly nor waste resources unnecessarily). Engaged Buddhism and Buddhism. A collection of Buddhist responses to global warming can be seen at Ecological Buddhism. [51]

In addition to Pope Francis , other world traditions currently seem to include a subset of leaders committed to an ecological perspective. The ” Green Patriarch ,” Bartholomew 1, the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church , [52] has worked with the late nineties to bring together scientists, environmentalists, religious leaders and policy makers to address the ecological crisis, and says protecting the planet is a “sacred task and a common vocation … Global warming is a moral crisis and a moral challenge.” [53] The Islamic Foundation For Ecology and Environmental Sciences (IFEES) [54]The International Islamic Climate Change Symposium held in Istanbul in August 2015, which resulted in “Islamic Declaration on Global Climate Change” -a declaration endorsed by religious leaders, noted Islamic scholars and teachers from 20 countries. [55] In October, 2015, 425 rabbis signed “A Rabbinic Letter on the Climate Crisis,” calling for vigorous action to prevent climate change and to seek eco-social justice. [56] Hindu scriptures also strongly and often to the connection between humans and nature, and these texts form the foundation of the Hindu Declaration on Climate Change, presented at a 2009 meeting of the Parliament of World Religions . [57]Many world faith and religious leaders, such as the Dalai Lama, were present at the 2015 Climate Change Conference, and shared the view that “Saving the planet is not just a political duty, but also a moral one.” [58] [59] The Karmapa, Ogyen Trinley Dorje , has also stated, “The environmental emergency that we face is not just a scientific issue, nor is it just a political issue-it is also a moral issue.” [60]

These religious approaches to ecology also have a growing interfaith expression, for example in The Interfaith Center for Sustainable Development (ICSD) where world religious leaders speak out on climate change and sustainability . And at their gathering in Fall 2015, the Parliament of World Religions created a statement for Interfaith Action on Climate Change, and “brought together more than 10,000 activists, professors, clergy, and global leaders from 73 countries and 50 faiths to confront climate change” [61]

Earth-based traditions and earth spirituality

Care for and respect to earth as Sacred-as Mother Earth ( Mother Nature) -who provides life and nourishment, is a central point to Earth-based spirituality. PaGaian Cosmology is a tradition within Earth-based spirituality that focuses particularly on Spiritual Ecology and celebrating the sacredness of life. Glenys Livingstone describes it in her book as “An Ecospirituality Grounded in Indigenous Western Earth-Sun Annual Cycle Celebration.” By linking to the story of the unfolding universe. The ritual scripts and the process of ritual events presented here, may be a journey into self-knowledge through personal, communal and ecological story: the self to be known is one that is integral with place. ” [62]

Spirituality and ecology

Whereas religiously-oriented environmentalism is grounded in scripture and theology, there is a more recent environmental movement that articulates the need for an ecological approach founded on spiritual awareness rather than religious belief. The individuals articulating this approach may have a religious background, but their ecological vision comes from their own lived spiritual experience. The difference between this spiritually-oriented ecology and a religious approach to ecology can be seen as analogous to how the inter-spiritual movement moves beyond interfaith and interreligious dialogue to focus on the experience of spiritual principles and practices. [63]Spiritual ecology similarly explores the importance of this experiential spiritual dimension in relation to our present ecological crisis. [13]

The Engaged Buddhist teacher Thich Nhat Hanh speaks about the importance of mindfulness in taking care of Mother earth, and how the highest form of prayer is real communion with the Earth. [64] Sandra Ingerman offers shamanic healing as a way of reversing pollution in Medicine for the Earth. [65] Franciscan monk Richard Rohr emphasizes the need to experience the whole world as a divine incarnation. Sufi mystic Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee direct our attention not just to the suffering of the physical world, but also its interior spiritual self, or anima mundi(world soul). Bill Plotkin and others are involved in the work of finding nature reconnecting with our soul and the world soul. [66] These are just a few of the many different types of spiritual practice in the spiritual world.

Environmental conservation

Main article: Conservation movement

The environmental conservation field has been informed, shaped, and led by individuals who have had profound experiences of nature’s sacredness and have fought to protect it. Recognizing the intimacy of human soul and nature, many have pioneered a new way of thinking about and relating to the earth.

Today, many aspects of the environmental conservation movement are empowered by the principles of interdisciplinary cooperation.

Robin Wall Kimmerer , Professor of Environmental and Forest Biology at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, HAS recently founded the Center for Native Peoples and the Environment [67]qui bridges scientific based study of ecology and the environment with traditional ecological knowledge , which includes spirituality. As she writes in this piece from Oxford Journal BioScience: “Traditional ecological knowledge is being tested by academics, agency scientists, and policymakers as a source of ideas for emerging models of ecosystem management, conservation biology, and ecological restoration. Traditional ecological knowledge is not unique to Native American culture but it is all over the world, independent of ethnicity, it is born of long intimacy and attentiveness to a homeland and their place of residence. [68]

In recent years, the World Wildlife Fund ( World Wide Fund for Nature ) has developed Sacred Earth: Faiths for Conservation , a program to collaborate with spiritual leaders and communities around the world, to face environmental issues including deforestation, pollution, unsustainable extraction, melting glaciers and rising sea levels. The Sacred Earth program works with faith-based leaders and communities, who “best articulate ethical and spiritual ideals around the sacred value of Earth and its diversity, and are committed to protecting it.” [69]

One of the conservation projects developed by the WWF Sacred Earth program is Khoryug, [70] based in the Eastern Himalayas, which is an association of several Tibetan Buddhist monasteries that works on environmental protection of the Himalayan region through the values ​​of compassion and interdependence towards the Earth and all living things that dwell here. Ogyen Trinley Dorje , The Karmapa, The Karmapa, The Koryapa, The Koryapa , The Karmapa, The Karmapa, The Koryapa, The Koryapa Project. pollution and climate change. ” [71]

Krishna Kant Shukla , a physicist and musician, is noted for his readings on Saha Astitva and his work on sustainable development in Maharashtra, India.

One trend to note is the recognition that women-by instinct and nature-have a unique commitment and ability to protect the earth’s resources. We see this in the lives of Wangari Maathai , founder of Africa’s Green Belt Movement , which was first made of women’s planting trees; Jane Goodall , innovator of local sustainable programs in Africa, many of which are designed to empower girls and women; and Vandana Shiva , the Indian feminist activist working on a variety of issues including seed saving , protecting small farms in India and protesting agribusiness.

Other contemporary inter-disciplinary environmentalists include Wendell Berry , a farmer, poet, and academic living in Kentucky, who fights for small farms and agri-business criticizes; and Satish Kumar , a Jain monk and founder of Schumacher College , a center for ecological studies.

Opposing Views

Although the May 2015 Encyclical of Pope Francis brought the importance of the subject to the subject of mainstream culture, it is a point of view that is not widely accepted or included in the work of most environmentalists and ecologists. Academic research on the subject has also generated some criticism. [72] [73]

Ken Wilber has criticized spiritual ecology, suggesting that “spiritually oriented deep ecologists ” fail to acknowledge the transcendent aspect of the divine, or hierarchical cosmologies, and thus exclude an important aspect of spirituality, as well as presenting what flat land “ontology in which the sacred in nature is wholly immanent. But Wilber’s views are also criticized as an in-depth understanding of indigenous spirituality. [74]

See also

  • Cultural ecology
  • Deep ecology
  • Ecopsychology
  • Religion and ecology
  • ecofeminism


As of December 15, 2015, this article is derived from spiritualecology.org . The copyright holder HAS licensed the content in a Manner That allowded reuse under CC BY-SA 3.0 and GFDL . All relevant terms must be followed. The original text was “About Spiritual Ecology” .

  1. Jump up^ Sponsel, Leslie E. (2012). Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution . Praeger. pp. xiii. ISBN  978-0-313-36409-9 .
  2. Jump up^ This theme is further Top Developed in the work ofLlewellyn Vaughan-Lee, Sandra Ingerman, Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Grim:http://fore.research.yale.eduLeslie Sponsel:http://spiritualecology.info, and others.
  3. Jump up^ Crockett, Daniel. “Connection Will Be Next to Big Human Trend”,Huffington Post, Aug 22, 2014.
  4. ^ Jump up to:Vidal b , John. “Religious leaders step up for action on climate change”, The Guardian , December 4, 2015.
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Mary Evelyn Tucker, “Complete Interview” Global Oneness Project video. See also: Worldviews & Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the Environment , Mary Evelyn Tucker and John A. Grim (eds.), And the Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology
  6. Jump up^ See Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee,The Return of the Feminine and the World Soul, c. 3, “Patriarchal Deities and the Repression of the Feminine.”
  7. Jump up^ See Leslie E. Sponsel,Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution, ch. III, “Branches”, 69-83 and specifically ch. 12, “Supernovas.”
  8. Jump up^ Leslie E. Sponsel,Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution, p. 66.
  9. Jump up^ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin,The Phenomenon of Man, p. 30.
  10. Jump up^ Thomas Berry,The Great Work, p. 105.
  11. Jump up^ Confino, Jo. “Beyond environment: falling back in love with Mother Earth,”The Guardian, Feb. 2010.
  12. Jump up^ Joanna Macy (2009-10-07). “The Great Turning” . Joannamacy.net . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:c Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee. “Spiritual Ecology” . Spiritual Ecology . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  14. ^ Jump up to:b “Home” . Working with Oneness . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  15. Jump up^ Also see the video Taking Spiritual Responsibility for the Planet with Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, and Engaged Buddhism
  16. Jump up^ Charles HRH The Prince of Wales. Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World , ch. 1, pp. 10-11.
  17. Jump up^ Gayathri, Amrutha. “Prince Charles Warns of Sixth Extinction Event, ‘Asks People to Cut Down on Consumption,”International Business Times, Sept. 9, 2011.
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  20. Jump up^ McKibben, Bill. “Pope Francis: The Cry of the Earth,”New York Review of Books, NYDaily, June 18, 2015.
  21. Jump up^ The David Suzuki Reader , p. 11.
  22. Jump up^ SeeHarvard University Press, Sarah McFarland Interview Taylor on the HUP Podcast.
  23. Jump up^ John Grim, “Recovering Religious Ecology with Indigenous Traditions”, available online at:Indigenous Traditions and Ecology, Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology.
  24. Jump up^ Mary Evelyn Tucker and John A. Grim, (eds.)Worldviews & Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the Environment, p. 11.
  25. Jump up^ Tu Wei-Ming, “Beyond Enlightenment Mentality,” published inWorldviews & Ecology: Religion, Philosophy, and the Environment, Mary Evelyn Tucker and John A. Grim (eds.), P. 27.
  26. Jump up^ Ritskes, Eric. “A Great Tree Has Fallen: Community, Spiritual Ecology, and African Education,” AJOTE, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto, Canada, Vol 2, No. 1, 2012.
  27. Jump up^ See “Environment and Imperialism: Why Colonialism Still Matters,”[1]Joseph Murphy, Sustainability Research Institute (SRI), School of Earth and Environment, The University of Leeds, UK, Oct. 2009, page 6.
  28. Jump up^ See also “Healing Ecological and Spiritual Connections through Learning to Be Non-Subjects”[2], Charlotte Šunde, Australian eJournal of Theology 8, Oct 2006.
  29. Jump up^ Edwards, William Ellis. (1967). “The Late-Pleistocene Extinction and Decrease in Size of Many Mammalian Species.” In Pleistocene Extinctions: The Search for a Cause. Paul S. Martin and HE Wright, Jr., eds. Pp. 141-154. New Haven: Yale University Press
  30. Jump up^ “… all of these [data] indicate human involvement in megafauna extinctions not only plausible, but likely.” Humans and the Extinction of Megafauna in the Americas, Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science, Spring 2009
  31. Jump up^ Gibbons, Robin (2004). Examining the Extinction of the Pleistocene Megafauna. Stanford Undergraduate Research Journal, Spring 2004, pp. 22-27
  32. Jump up^ Grayson, Donald K. (1984). “Archaeological Associations with Extinct Pleistocene Mammals in North America.” Journal of Archaeological Science 11 (3): 213-221
  33. Jump up^ Martin, Paul S. (1967). “Prehistoric Overkill.” In Pleistocene Extinctions: The Search for a Cause. Paul S. Martin and HE Wright, Jr., eds. Pp. 75-120. New Haven: Yale University Pressre.
  34. Jump up^ Martin, Paul S. (1984). “Prehistoric Overkill: The Global Model.” In Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. Paul S. Martin and Richard G. Klein, eds. Pp. 354-403. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  35. Jump up^ Roberts, Richard G. et al. (2001). “New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent-Wide Extinction About 46,000 Years Ago.” Science 292: 1888-1892
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  39. Jump up^ Leslie E. Sponsel,Spiritual Ecology: A Quiet Revolution, c. 12, “Supernovas”, p. 83.
  40. Jump up^ “About | Mary Evelyn Tucker” . Emerging Earth Community . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  41. Jump up^ “About | John Grim” . Emerging Earth Community. 2015-02-03 . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  42. Jump up^ “Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology” . Fore.research.yale.edu . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  43. Jump up^ “Earth Charter | Overview” . Emerging Earth Community . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  44. Jump up^ Roger S. Gottlieb, Professor of Philosophy, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
  45. Jump up^ “Exploring and Studying Environmental Ethics & History, Nature Religion, Radical Environmentalism, Surfing Spirituality, Deep Ecology and more” . Bron Taylor . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  46. Jump up^ “Spiritual Ecology | Leslie E. Sponsel” . Spiritualecology.info . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  47. Jump up^ Sarah McFarland Taylor (2008). Green Sisters: a Spiritual Ecology . Harvard University Press . ISBN  9780674034952 .
  48. Jump up^ “Transformative Learning through Sustainable Living” . Schumacher College . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  49. Jump up^ Harris, Sarah, (Reporter and Producer) “Sacred and science go together” for Diana Beresford-Kroeger botanist North Country Public Radio, May 15, 2014.
  50. Jump up^ See also: Hampson, Sarah. The Tree Whisperer: Science, Spirituality and an Abiding Love of Forests The Globe and Mail, Oct. 17, 2013.
  51. Jump up^ “Home” . Ecobuddhism . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  52. Jump up^ “Home – The Ecumenical Patriarchate” . Patriarchate.org . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  53. Jump up^ Bingham, John. “Science alone can not save the planet, insists spiritual leader of Orthodox Church”The Telegraph, Nov. 3, 2015.
  54. Jump up^ The Islamic Foundation For Ecology And Environmental Sciences (IFEES)
  55. Jump up^ Islamic Declaration on Global Climate Change
  56. Jump up^ Link to the text of the Rabbinic Letter and its signers
  57. Jump up^ Hindu Declaration on Climate Change, presented at the Parliament of the World’s Religions, Melbourne, Australia, Dec. 8, 2009.
  58. Jump up^ Religious leaders and climate activists: Saving planet is moral duty”, DPA (German Press Agency News), Nov 4, 2015.
  59. Jump up^ See also Greenfield, Nicole “In the Spiritual Movement to Fight Climate Change, The Pope Is Not Alone,” originally published by the Natural Resource Defense Council, June 22, 2015.
  60. Jump up^ Rohn, Roger. “For Buddhist Leader, Religion and the Environment Are One: Interview with HH The Karmapa,Yale Environment 360, April 16, 2015.
  61. Jump up^ “7 Ways the Parliament Stepped Up to Climate Change Challenge in 2015,” Parliament of World Religions, Dec. 14, 2015.
  62. Jump up^ “PaGaian Cosmology” . PaGaian Cosmology. 2013-07-16 . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  63. Jump up^ Interspirituality moves a step beyond interfaith dialogue and is a concept developed by the Catholic MonkWayne Teasdalein 1999 in his bookThe Mystic Heart: Discovering a Universal Spirituality in the World’s Religions. Also see”New Monasticism: An Interspiritual Manifesto for Contemplative Life in the 21st Century”, by Rory McEntee & Adam Bucko, p. 22, and Wayne Teasdale,A Monk in the World, p.175. Furthermore, interspirituality has an ecological dimension. See “The Interspiritual Age: Practical Mysticism for a Third Millennium,” Wayne Teasdale, (1999).
  64. Jump up^ “Thay: Beyond Environment” . Ecobuddhism . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  65. Jump up^ “Sandra Ingerman” . Sandra Ingerman . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  66. Jump up^ “A New Book by Bill Plotkin, Ph.D.” . Nature and the Human Soul . Retrieved 2015-08-28 .
  67. Jump up^ SeeSUNY-ESF Center for Native Peoples and the Environment
  68. Jump up^ Kimmerer, Robin Wall. “Weaving Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Biological Education: A Call to Action,” Oxford Journals: Science & Mathematics, BioScience, Vol. 52, Issue 5, pp. 432-438.
  69. Jump up^ SeeSacred Earth: Faiths for Conservation at WWF.
  70. Jump up^ SeeKhoryug.
  71. Jump up^ http://www.worldwildlife.org/initiatives/sacred-earth-faiths-for-conservation#close/
  72. Jump up^ See Murray, Tim. Seeking an Ecological Rescue: Do We Need a Spiritual Awakening—or a Scientific Understanding?, Humanist Perspectives: a Canadian Journal of Humanism, Issue 86, Autumn 2013.
  73. Jump up^ See also Sponsel, Leslie E.Religion, nature and environmentalismArchived2014-05-30 at theWayback Machine. Encyclopedia of the Earth, published July 2, 2007 (updated March 2013).
  74. Jump up^ See Zimmerman, Michael E. Ken Wilber’s Critique of Ecological Spirituality , Integral World, published August 2003.

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