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RAVEN (Respecting Aboriginal Values ​​& Environmental Needs)

RAVEN Respecting Aboriginal Values ​​& Environmental Needs is a charitable organization that provides assistance to Aboriginal peoples in a sustainable way.

Mission

RAVEN’s mission is to assist Aboriginal peoples in Canada by restoring their traditional lands and resources and addressing critical environmental challenges as well as global warming by strategically enforcing their laws. [1]

Tax-free status

RAVEN is a registered Canadian non-profit organization with charitable tax status. RAVEN’s registration number is 85484 0147 RR0001. The organization also has applied for US 501 (c) (3) status and is in the final stages of formalizing that.

Activities and structure

RAVEN currently promoting the Beaver Lake Cree Nation in support of its traditional hunting, trapping and fishing by Alberta tar sands industries. RAVEN’s position is that assisting the Beaver Lake Cree Nation in its efforts to stop the oil sands development is a chance to reverse a trend toward destroying the natural systems of the planet. The destruction of the boreal forest and the wasteful use of energy for the extraction of oil combines to make the expansion of the oil sands one of the greatest threats to the future of our planet.

RAVEN also supports the Tsilhqot’in National Government and Xeni Gwet’in First Nation in their legal action against Taseko Mines’ Prosperity Project which proposes to turn to a lake that is part of the Fraser River watershed into a dump site for mine waste. RAVEN claims that assisting the Tsilhqot’in Nation is a chance to prevent ecological disaster before it takes place. Teztan Biny (known as Fish Lake by settler communities) is being reviewed to become an industrial site for the Taseko Mines Prosperity Project.

RAVEN works in close alliance with the growing movement of eNGOs (environmental non-governmental organizations). The Tsilhqot’in fight to preserve Teztan Biny (Fish Lake) is now a national issue of MiningWatch Canada and the Council of Canadians . The practice of turning fresh water into toxic waste is a matter of concern everyone. [2] The Canadian federal government is not only allowed for this practice, but also there are more Canada facing the same fate as Teztan Biny.

RAVEN’s board of directors includes David Williams of Friends of the Nemaiah Valley, Lynn Hunter and Linda Stanton.

Campaigns

Beaver Lake Cree Nation vs. the tar sands

The Beaver Lake Cree, [3] a small, impoverished band of 900 people in eastern Alberta, are suing the Canadian federal and provincial Alberta governments to protect the land. They claim that Alberta ‘s sands developments are obliterating their traditional hunting and fishing lands in Alberta. The animals, fish, plants and medicine that sustain the Beaver Lake Cree are being destroyed.

In Canada, the rights of Indigenous people are constitutionally protected. Led by Chief Al Lameman, the Beaver Lake Cree Nation is an assertive to treaty right to hunt and fish throughout the country. This short action seeks an injunction against new developments. The Beaver Lake Cree’s Statement of Claim cites more than 17,000 infringements on their lawsuits in the world.

Investment in the bituminous sands in northern Alberta – the world’s last great oil field – totals approximately $ 200 billion. No assessment of the cumulative environmental or cultural damage has been done. It has been argued that this project – unhindered – will destroy a large part of the great boreal forest of North America, will escalate global warming, and will destroy an indigenous way of life. 1.3 million barrels per day (210,000 m 3 / d) to 3 million barrels per day (480,000 m 3 / d) by 2015.

Already vast expanses of the boreal forest have been cut down to the earth’s well-being. The forest is home to a long list of animals, from black bears and caribou to marten and moose . Chief Al Lameman says they were no longer there caribou herds where caribou were abundant just 12 years ago. Moose are also being displaced in large numbers and simply can not be found. There is evidence that the herds are also not self-sustaining – there is a new calf population to replace the older population of moose.

As the forest is made to make way for mines and mines, the ‘great lung’ of North America with its rich carbon-storing peat and soil, is disappearing. In its place, rapid growth of carbon emissions threatens to increase the earth’s temperature. Meanwhile, oil sands extraction pollutes the earth with its tailings ponds, pollutes the air with its emissions, and pollutes the water using two to four barrels of water to produce just one barrel of bitumen and creating vast lakes of chemicals that leach into local watersheds.

Beaver Lake Cree history

The Beaver Lake Cree is a small Indian community located in eastern Alberta, north-east of Edmonton and just outside Lac La Biche. It currently has approximately 900 members. In the early 19th century, the Hudson’s Bay Companya post trading at Lac La Biche, and the locals hunted, fished and trapped to the HBC agents. In the 1870s the Canadian government was involved in a process of resolution. By the middle of the decade, food supplies for the plains were running with a rapid decline in buffalo, and geographical survey crews were running into tensions with the local inhabitants. In July 1875, Cree warriors stopped at telegraph crew at the fork of the Saskatchewan River. Alexander Morris [4] to meet with the Cree , Chipewyan and Salteaux Leaders beginning on August 15, 1876.

Discussions lasted for several days and included many pipe ceremonies. The pipe ceremonies were viewed by the Cree people as a mark of the solemnity of the occasion. In the presence of the pipe only the truth could be said that it would have been made as part of such ceremonies would be kept. For their part, the Commissioners invoked the name of the Queen, and made the treaty in his name. Beaver Lake’s immediate ancestors with Commissioner Morris at Fort Pitt in September, 1876. There Morris gave this speech:

… I see the Queen’s Councillors taking care of you, we will teach you, if you will learn, the cunning of the white man. All along the road I see Indians gathering, I see growing gardens and houses building; I see them receiving money from the Queen’s Commissioners at the same time, I see them retaining their living and fishing as before, I see them retaining their old fashion of living with the Queen’s gift in addition.

Chief Pay-ay-sis Treaty 6. He and the other chiefs surrendered approximately 195,000 square kilometers of land. In return for their land, they were promised that they would be able to pay a fee and they would be paid $ 5.00 per year.

The promise to pay $ 5.00 Cree person has been faithfully kept every year.

The important text of Treaty 6 is:

The Plain and Wood Cree Tribes of Indians, and all other Indians inhabiting the district hereinafter described and defined, do hereby give, release, surrender and yield up to the Government of the Dominion of Canada, for Her Majesty the Queen and Her Successors Forever All the rights, titles and privileges, whatsoever, to the lands included in the following limits … Her Majesty further agrees with Her said Indians that they, the said Indians, as hereinbefore described, subject to such regulations as may be made by the Government of Her Dominion of Canada, andThe said Government of the Dominion of Canada, or by any of the said States, duly authorized therefor by the said Government.

There is a tension built into the treaty between the Crown and the enduring right of the Indians to hunt and fish. In the 19th century, the size of a country in the world was so great that the number of people living in the country was so great. For over one hundred years, there is a significant opportunity for hunt and fish, so the conflict between the Crowns and the Indian’s rights did not arise.

But in the last two decades, the tar sands developments have been encroached on such huge amounts of conflict between the viability of the treaty and the Crown’s right to continue to alienate land.

The law in this situation has been made by the Supreme Court of Canada . The Crown can not take it up so much as to compromise the meaningful right to hunt. If game becomes so great that the Indians would have a lot to do with it, then it’s going to be worthwhile. If that is the case, then the Crown shares can be declared unconstitutional.

The tar sands and potential impact on the Beaver Lake Cree

The Athabasca oil sands deposit represents the second largest known deposit of oil in the world – after Saudi Arabia. It is estimated that trillion barrels of oil in the sands, with an estimated 315 billion barrels (5.01 × 10 103 ) considered to be recoverable. [5] Production of synthetic crude oil from the tar sands is well under way – Producing Alberta is about 1.3 million barrels (210,000 m 3 ) of dirty oil per day. [6] That amount is expected to double or triple in the next few years, based on recent massive private investment in these projects.

The environmental liabilities that result from the various steps in oil extraction and refining process include: Destruction of the boreal forest eco-system ii. Damage to the Athabasca Watershed iii. Heavy consumption of natural gas iv. Creation of toxic tailings ponds v. Increased release of greenhouse gases

i. Destruction of the boreal forest eco-system

All of the oil sands are located in the boreal forest. The boreal forest is particularly valuable for its ability to store large amounts of carbon in its bogs, peat, soil, and trees. The destruction of boreal forest reduces the earth’s capacity to store carbon and emissions. The currently proposed oil sands projects, if all were to be activated, would directly remove an area of ​​boreal forest eco-system twice the size of Ireland. [7] Destruction of the forest eliminates the habitat for birds, fish, and mammals, including caribou, bear, deer, moose, wolves, coyotes, lynx, wolverine, beaver, fisher, marten, muskrat, and squirrels. Reclamation is not a credible solution.

ii. Damage to the Athabasca water shed

Two to four and a half barrels of water are required to produce a barrel of oil from the tar sands. [8] Water is used to create the slurry of oil that is heated and processed. Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage method of extraction where steam is pumped into the ground. For each barrel of oil, one of the following is one of the following: [8]

At present, large water allocations from the Athabasca River are assigned to industrial use. A recent Alberta government report concludes that “The Athabasca River may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the future of operations and maintain adequate flows.” [9] This is one of Canada’s largest rivers.

Water impacts threatening fish, wildlife, downstream communities, and transportation in the McKenzie delta. [10] The toxicity of the tailings also occurs at the Athabasca River and at the level of the watershed. Already there have been reports of unusually high incidence of certain kinds of cancer in the living downstream populations. [11]

iii. Heavy consumption of natural gas

Natural gas is burned to heat the oil in the oil. The energy equivalent of one barrel of oil in natural gas is needed to produce three barrels of synthetic crude. Producing a barrel of oil from the oil sands requires one thousand cubic feet of natural gas.

Natural gas is a fossil fuel, and when it burns to create heat it adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. But the additional concern is that natural gas releases less carbon dioxide per unit of energy. So, a relatively clean non-renewable fossil fuel is being burned to a very dirty fossil fuel. [12]

iv. Creation of toxic tailings ponds

The “tailings” from the bitumen retrieval and refining processes include sand, silt and clay mixed with leftover hydrocarbons and other toxic substances. Tailings are being created at a rate of 2,000 or so liters per barrel of bitumen, resulting in about 1.8 billion liters of tailings every day. In May 2008, tailings covered approximately 130 km2 of Alberta. [13]

• elevated sodium, chloride, sulphate • elevated total dissolved solids, pH, conductivity and alkalinity • lower calcium and magnesium (soft water) • variable levels of trace metals, including boron, arsenic and strontium • elevated ammonia • naphthenic acids, phenols, hydrocarbons • and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons • other acute and chronic toxicants [14]

In many cases, huge ponds sit with very short berms separating them from the Athabasca River. The Athabasca is the source of the river of McKenzie watershed. It is the main source of food fish for Aboriginal communities.

In April 2008, considerable press coverage arose when 500 ducks landed on the Syncrude tailings pond and died. Syncrude did not report the incident and it only became public because of an anonymous tip. Provincial regulations require the use of scarecrows and soundmakers, but these were not functioning at the time. A member of the Sierra Club of Alberta, Jeh Custer, started a private prosecution against Syncrude in 2008. A private prosecution for an environmental office is a legal proceeding where an individual attempts to enforce an environmental statute, in which the Crown prosecutors fail to do so. Such private prosecutions almost always fail. But they serve to embarrass governments who are not doing their job. On February 10, both Canada and Alberta begin formal proceedings against Syncrude for the same offenses. If convicted, Syncrude could face up to $ 300,000 fine.

v. The release of the greenhouse gases

There are three main sources of extraction: 1. Release of carbon from the living boreal forest as it is destroyed. 2. Burning of natural gas, a fossil fuel, in the refining process 3. The carbon released from the bitumen itself. Because of the large amount of greenhouse gases in the United States, the average annual production of the crude oil is much higher than that of the United States.

The earth’s atmosphere currently contains about 459 ppm CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases. [15]At this elevated level we are now in the danger zone. It is well understood that the concentrations of CO2 approach are likely to be high enough that the earth will warm 2 degrees, and will probably warm 3 degrees, an amount of warming that would be fully catastrophic. Over the next 30 years as well as the future of carbon dioxide to earth’s atmosphere. Even if no one else is going to be carbon dioxide over the next 30 years, operating in the atmosphere at 525 ppm. This one source will be single-handedly canceled out all the world’s efforts to control climate change. All the good effects of conservation, conversion to solar, wind, tidal, geothermal and other expensive unconventional energy sources will be for nothing, Because this one will continue to push atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and equivalent greenhouse gases. All the planning and sacrifice by the rest of the world will be canceled out by this one industry.

And, in the course of exploiting the tar sands and destroying the boreal forest, the treaty rights of the Beaver Lake Cree Nation will be rendered meaningless.

Co-operative Bank supports BLCN with its Toxic Fuels Campaign

In February 2009, The Co-operative Financial Services announced it was backing the Beaver Lake Cree legal action. [16] Paul Monaghan, Head of Social Goals and Sustainability at CFS said: “We already know that marketing of tar sands risks massive environmental damage. If the Beaver Lake Cree Nation is successful in their ground-breaking legal challenge and other indigenous groups follow, oil companies could also be looking at massive investment damages. “CFS launched its Toxic Fuels campaign, designed to” combat the shocking global trend of extracting Such operations threatenens global efforts to avoid dangerous levels of climate change” [17] The Toxic Fuels campaign has a long history of providing financial support for CFS, and has increased the value of the Cree’s lawsuit. [18] ]


The Tsilhqot’in fight to save Teztan Biny

Taseko Mines Ltd. is proposing to develop the Prosperity Mine, [19] a massive open pit gold and copper mine, deep within the Tsilhqot’in Nation. The proposed Prosperity Mine is located in south central British Columbia, approximately 125 km southwest of Williams Lake, on an alpine plateau in the Chilcotin, beneath the rugged glaciated peaks of the Coast Range. The Prosperity Mine, if developed, is close to the Nemaiah Valley, Ts’yl-os Provincial Park, and the Elegesi Qayus Wild Horse Preserve.

A statement prepared by the Tsilhqot’in National Government and placed on the RAVEN website says:

the mine, the tailings pond, the waste rock piles, roads, and transmission lines would be destroyed in the sub-alpine ecosystem, and most importantly Teztan Biny, a lake to the Tsilhqot’in Nation, and known to others as Fish Lake. Teztan Biny is a beautiful mountain lake where our ancestors have been used and managed since time immemorial. Teztan Biny supports a vibrant population (some 85,000) of genetically unique rainbow trout that provides a critical food source for the Tsilhqot’in people and local wildlife; Grizzly Bears.

For generations the Tsilhqot’in have gone to Teztan Biny to fi sh, to set the traps and nets, hunt and trap, gather medicines, engage in spiritual practices, reconnect with the land, honor their elders, share stories, and foster unity. It is more than a lake to the Tsilhqot’in – it is an integral part of Tsilhqot’in culture, and vital to their cultural continuity and survival. Many non-Aboriginal local residents and tourists also enjoy Teztan Biny. The Tsilhqot’in Nation is neither against development nor against the responsibility of natural resources. In fact, we have the traditional keepers of the earth for years, we have successfully balanced the need for sustainable harvesting with long-term preservation. To the Tsilhqot’in people,

For generations the Tsilhqot’in people have gone to Teztan Biny, and the streams and wetlands surrounding it, feeding Fish Creek and the Taseko River, critical habitat areas for Chinook and sockeye salmon. It is here that wild salmon begin their long journey to the Paci fi c ocean via the Chilko, the Chilcotin and ultimately, the Fraser River. Teztan Biny is a vital part of the watershed that supports one of the largest and most productive salmon fi sheries in North America. We have deep concern that any toxic ef fl uents that seep from the mine and waste rock facilities.

Chief Marilyn Baptist , following in the long tradition of strong Tsilhqot’in leaders, has again taken the Tsilhqot’in claims to court by another language seeking speci fi c declaration of an Aboriginal right to fi sh in Teztan Biny. She is acting on behalf of our elders, our leaders and future generations. Currently, the Tsilhqot’in Nation Government (TNG) is participating in the environmental assessment process conducted by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) [20]to ensure that our voice is heard. The fi nancial, social, and time pressures are immense. An independent review panel has been named, and public hearings will take place this summer. The Taseko Mines Ltd. is a Taseko Mines Ltd. is strongly advocating for an expedited process to ensure construction begins in winter 2010.

Issues of concern

Significant environmental and social impacts can be summarized as:

1- Reclassification of Fish Lake as a Tailings Pond – Fish Lake also named Tetzan Biny – a permanent waste rock disposal area, and its upstream watershed as a permanent storage facility for mine tailings and effluent. This amendment requires the approval of the Minister of Marine Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER), Schedule 2 [21] . MMER Schedule 2 is highly controversial in Canada, [22]and Canada is one of the few countries in the world that permits such an industrial practice. More than a dozen lakes and water bodies are currently being considered for this application in Canada. Teztan Biny, which is one of the most productive rainbow trout lakes in BC. The proponent suggests that they may not be able to afford fish for fish and that they may not be able to fish in the lake (to be called “Prosperity Lake”) as a means of compensation for the loss of fish Lake and upstream and downstream spawning habitat.

2- Aboriginal Rights and Title -The Tsilhqot’in Nation, which includes six member communities, has lived in the area of ​​the mine, and has maintained its position in the area. In particular, the Tsilhqot’in Nation has already come to the forefront of its proposed mine, [23]Teztan Biny. The Tsilhqot’in people fish, hunt, trap and gather berries and traditional medicines throughout the area. Tsilhqot’in land use in the affected area. The proposed construction of the mine, irrespective of other issues, pits the economic priority of industrial development and asserted Aboriginal rights and title, and undermines the efforts of the reconciliation of the Crown’s assertion of sovereignty with the prior occupation of Aboriginal people on this land.

3- Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage(ML) and Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), in surface and groundwater. The naturally occurring sulphuric of sulfur and sulfur to produce sulfuric acid. Both of these processes are accelerated by the crushing and refining of the body through the process of mining. Open pit mining, in particular, requires the processing of massive quantities of waste rock and overburden to access the comparatively small amounts of the deposit. Lastly, the presence of sulphuric acid accelerates the leaching of toxic metals. The process is called ML / ARD, and is presently the single greatest adverse environmental effect of modern industrial standards. The effects of ML / ARD are difficult to predict, and tending to a crisis after the beginning of a mine operation, and can produce lasting, chronic, and sometimes irremediable environmental damage. Often, the corporate entity that has developed into the marketplace is one of the problems that arise, and the bonding and securities required of the proponent by government are insufficient to remedy or mitigate the damages. The costs are borne by local residents and future generations. The Kemess North Joint Review Panel final conclusion: “The panel believes that the creation of a long-term legacy of substantial mine site management and maintenance obligations,” and sometimes irremediable environmental damage. Often, the corporate entity that has developed into the marketplace is one of the problems that arise, and the bonding and securities required of the proponent by government are insufficient to remedy or mitigate the damages. The costs are borne by local residents and future generations. The Kemess North Joint Review Panel final conclusion: “The panel believes that the creation of a long-term legacy of substantial mine site management and maintenance obligations,” and sometimes irremediable environmental damage. Often, the corporate entity that has developed into the marketplace is one of the problems that arise, and the bonding and securities required of the proponent by government are insufficient to remedy or mitigate the damages. The costs are borne by local residents and future generations. The Kemess North Joint Review Panel final conclusion: “The panel believes that the creation of a long-term legacy of substantial mine site management and maintenance obligations,” and the bonding and securities required of the proponent by government are insufficient to remedy or mitigate the damages. The costs are borne by local residents and future generations. The Kemess North Joint Review Panel final conclusion: “The panel believes that the creation of a long-term legacy of substantial mine site management and maintenance obligations,” and the bonding and securities required of the proponent by government are insufficient to remedy or mitigate the damages. The costs are borne by local residents and future generations. The Kemess North Joint Review Panel final conclusion: “The panel believes that the creation of a long-term legacy of substantial mine site management and maintenance obligations,”[24] On March 7, 2008, the Government of Canada and the Province of British Columbia announced that they would accept the recommendation of an independent environmental assessment panel that proposed Kemess North [25] [26]

4-Potential Impacts to the Fraser Basin watershed– Fish Lake is at approximately 1400m above sea level, and is atop a bench between two low mountain tops. The lake, and the site of the proposed mine, and the tailings impoundments area, are known to the Taseko River, which connects downstream with the highly productive salmon-bearing Chilko and Chilcotin Rivers before entering the Fraser River below Williams Lake. Some 240 m tonnes of potentially acid generating waste rock will be stored permanently underwater behind a massive watershed fish lake. This structure will be maintained in perpetuity, for the purpose of water pollution, and to reduce the risk of pollution. Any inadvertent, accidental or even naturally caused effluent discharge from the tailings will inevitably end up in these river systems with potentially catastrophic results to one of BC’s most valuable fish runs. The massive dam and stored effluent and waste rock on the Lake Fishes would also pose serious threats to groundwater contamination by mine effluents draining from beneath the impoundment into the rocks and groundwater systems feeding the Taseko River. Taseko River water quality. All of these risks last not only for the mine life but forever, requiring significant future investment.

5- Free Entry– The Chilcotin-Cariboo region, a dispute over land use, is a potential source of prospectors, prospective prospectors, and anyone else with a credit card, and for a few dollars in the mining industry. Upon further application, the mineral claim can be converted into a long-term lease. These “free entry” provisions of the Mineral Tenure Act, and the provisions of the Act do not recognize any other interest in the land, for example the interests of First Nations. While the provisions of the Mineral Tenure Act have generated hundreds of millions of dollars in annual revenue for the province and markedly encouraged mineral prospecting and mine development in the short-term, the free entry system precipitates the inevitable conflicts that result where the rights of established land users are trumped by other interests, often pitting local and foreign interests against one another. While land use planning in BC, the provisions of the Mineral Tenure Act, undermine the devolution. The first time, the first time, the first time, the time of the day, the time of the day, the time of the day, the time of the day, While land use planning in BC, the provisions of the Mineral Tenure Act, undermine the devolution. The first time, the first time, the first time, the second time, the time of the day, the time of the day when the time of the day was While land use planning in BC, the provisions of the Mineral Tenure Act, undermine the devolution.

See also

  • Environmental issues in Canada

References

  1. Jump up^ SMS VSIP Consulting Inc. “News” . Raventrust.com . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .
  2. Jump up^ Council of Canadians article by National Water Campaign Meera Karunananthanhttp://www.canadians.org/08/blog.html
  3. Jump up^ “Beaver Lake” . Beaverlakecreenation.ca. 2008-05-14 . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .
  4. Jump up^ “Office of the Treaty Commissioner” . Otc.ca . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .
  5. Jump up^ Alberta Department of Energy, Alberta Oil Sands 2006 (updated December 2007,) Edmonton, AB, 2007
  6. Jump up^ Andrew Nikiforuk, Tar Sands – Dirty Oil and the Future of a Continent, Greystone Books, Vancouver, Canada, 2008 (in collaboration with the David Suzuki Foundation). As of December 2007, there were approximately 4,264 oil sands agreements within the province, totaling 64,919 square kilometers. http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/792.asp
  7. Jump up^ Sierra Club website, “Tar Sands and the Boreal Forest,” 2006:http://www.tarsandstimeout.ca/index. php? option = com_content & task = view & id=36 & Item
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Sierra Club website, “Tar Sands and Water,” 2006: “http: = com_content & www.tarsandstimeout.ca/index.php optional task = view & id=33 & Item …?
  9. Jump up^ Government of Alberta, Oil Sands Ministerial Strategy Committee, “Investing in our future: Responding to the rapid growth of oil sands development,” 2006, p. 112
  10. Jump up^ Sierra Club website, “Living Downstream – Growing Water Concerns in the NWT,” 2006: “http: www.tarsandstimeout.ca/index.php? Option = com_content & task = view & id=30 & Item …
  11. Jump up^ “Oilsands-area hamlet supports whistleblower MD – Physician raised concerns about high cancer rates”http://www.cbc.ca/money/story/2007/03/05/alberta-doctor-070305. html.
  12. Jump up^ Polaris Institute website, “Dirty Little Secret: Canada’s Global Warming Engine,” Alberta Tar sands Profile Series, 2007. See also George Monbiot, Heat, Anchor Books, Canadian Edition 2007, page 82.
  13. Jump up^ Pembina, Fact or Fiction, at p. 41.
  14. Jump up^ Jennifer Grant, Fact or Fiction: Oil Sands Reclamation, Drayton Valley, AB: Pembina Institute, 2008, p.36
  15. Jump up^ Monbiot, Bring on the Apocalypse, Anchor Books, 2008, page 44.
  16. Jump up^ [1] ArchivedDecember 29, 2009, at theWayback Machine.
  17. Jump up^ “Co-operative Toxic Fuels” . Co-operativecampaigns.co.uk . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .
  18. Jump up^ Guardian Article, July 20, 2009,http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jul/20/canada-cree-tar-sands
  19. Jump up^ “Taseko Mines Limited – New Prosperity – Thu Dec 8, 2011” . Tasekomines.com . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .
  20. Jump up^ “Canadian Environmental Assessment Registry – Review Panel – Gold Prosperity-Copper Mine Project” . Ceaa.gc.ca. 2009-01-19 . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .
  21. Jump up^ Here is an example of such amendment:http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2009/2009-02-18/html/sor-dors27-eng.html
  22. Jump up^ “News Brief – Environmental Law Center” . Elc.ab.ca . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .
  23. Jump up^ Tsilhqot’in Nation c. British Columbia, 2007 BCSC 1700
  24. Jump up^ Kemess North Copper-Gold Joint Report Review Panel Report Summary – September 17, 2007 p. 16
  25. Jump up^ Environmental Impact Statement / Application March 2009, Taseko Mines Limited, Volume 1 p.7-4 Prosperity Gold-Copper Project
  26. Jump up^ Ministry of Environment, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2008-03-07). “Panel Recommendation Accepted On Kemess North Project” . .news.gov.bc.ca . Retrieved 2011-12-08 .

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