NIMBY

NIMBY (an acronym for the phrase ” Not In My Back Yard ” [1] [2] ), or Nimby , [3] is a pejorative characterization of opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to or, in some cases, because the development involves controversial or potentially dangerous technology) often with the connotation that such residents believe that the developments are needed in society but should be further away. The residents are often called Nimbys , and their state of mind is called Nimbyism .

Examples of projects Likely to be Opposed include Any sort of housing development , [4] bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure , skyscrapers , homeless shelters , [5] oil wells , chemical plants , industrial parks , military bases , fracking , [6] wind turbines , desalination plants , landfill sites , incinerators , power plants , quarries , prisons , [7] pubs , adult entertainment clubs , concert parties , firearms dealers , mobile phone masts , electricity pylons , abortion clinics , [8] children’s homes , nursing homes , youth hostels , sports stadiums , shopping malls , retail parks , railways , roads , airports , seaports , nuclear waste repositories , [9] storage for weapons of mass destruction ,[10] Cannabis dispensaries and recreational cannabis shops .

The NIMBY concept can also be applied to people who advocate some proposals (eg, budget cuts, tax increases, layoffs, immigration or energy conservation).

Developments likely to attract local objections include:

  • Infrastructure development, such as new roads and motorway service areas , light rail and metro lines, bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, airports, power plants , retail developments, sales of public assets, electrical transmission lines , wastewater treatment plants , landfills , sewage outfalls and prisons ;
  • The extraction of mineral resources Including ore, aggregates and hydrocarbons from mines , quarries and oil wells or gas wells , respectivement;
  • renewable energy generators, such as wind farms and solar panels ;
  • businesses trading in services perceived as immoral , such as adult video , liquor stores , and medical cannabis dispensaries ;
  • such per capita benefits, such as subsidized housing for the financially disadvantaged , supportive housing for the mental ill , halfway houses for drug addicts and criminals , and homeless shelters for those with no fixed address ;
  • catering services to some stigmatised groups (for example, injecting drug users ), Such As methadone clinics , syringe exchange programs , drug detoxification facilities, supervised injection site ;
  • large-scale developments of all kinds, such as big box stores and housing subdivisions .

The claims of this type, and some of the following.

  • Increased traffic: More jobs, more housing or more stores correlates to increased traffic on local streets and greater demand for parking spots. Industrial facilities such as warehouses, factories, or landfills often increase the volume of truck traffic.
  • Harm to locally owned small businesses : The development of a big box store May Provide too much competition to a locally owned store; similarly, the construction of a new road may make the older road less traveled, leading to a loss of business for property owners. This can lead to excessive relocation costs, or to local businesses.
  • Loss of residential property value: Homes near an undesirable development may be less desirable for potential buyers. The lost revenue from property taxes may, or may not, be offset by an increased revenue from the project.
  • Environmental pollution of land, air, and water: Power plants, factories, chemical facilities, crematoriums , sewage treatment facilities , airports, and similar projects may, or may be claimed to, contaminate the land, air, or water around them. Especially facilities assumed to smell might cause objections.
  • Light pollution : Projects that operate at night, or that include security lighting (such as street lights in a parking lot), may be accused of causing light pollution.
  • Noise pollution : In addition to the noise of traffic, a project may inherently be noisy. This is a common objection to wind power , airports , roads, and many industrial facilities, but also stadiums, festivals , and nightclubs which are particularly noisy at night when locals want to sleep. [11]
  • Visual blight and failure to “blend in” with the surrounding architecture: The proposed project may be particularly large, or cast a shadow over an area due to its height. [12]
  • A community of small-town feel : Proposals that may result in new people moving into the community, such as a plan to build a new home, are often asked to change the community’s character.
  • Strain of public resources and schools: This reason is for the purpose of increasing the number of people living in the community. a group home for people with disabilities, or immigrants.
  • Disproportionate benefit to non-locals: The project appears to benefit remote people, such as investors or in the case of commercial projects like factories or big-box stores. , highways, sewage treatment, or landfills).
  • Increases in crime: This is usually applied to projects that are perceived as attractive or employing low-skilled workers or racial minorities, as often as they are. and drug addicts. Additionally, certain types of projects, such as pubsor medical marijuana dispensaries, may be seen to increase the amount of crime in the area.
  • Risk of year (environmental) disaster , Such As with drilling operations, chemical industry, dams , [13] or nuclear power plants.
  • Historic areas: The affected area is on the National Register of Historic Places , because of its many older properties that are being preserved as such.

Generally, many NIMBY objections are guessed or feared, because objections are more likely to be successful before the construction start. It is often too late to the project after its completion, since new additions are unlikely to be reversed. As hinted by the list, protests can occur for opposite reasons. A new road or shopping center can cause increased traffic and work opportunities for some, and decreased traffic for others, harming local businesses.

People in an area affected by plans and other forms of organization. NIMBYists can hire a lawyer to do formal Appeals , and media contacts to gain public backing for Their box.

Origin and history

The Oxford English Dictionary identifies the acronym’s earliest use in the 1980s in the Christian Science Monitor . [14] [15] The concept behind the term, that of locally organized resistance to unwanted land uses, is likely to have originated earlier. One suggestion is it emerged in the 1950s. [16]

In the 1980s, the British politician Nicholas Ridley , who was Conservative Secretary of State for the Environment . citation needed ] Comedian George Carlin used the term in a comedy skit, implying that people had already heard of it. [17]

The NIMBY acronym has also been used by social scientists since the early 1980s to describe the resistance of communities to the siting of controversial facilities and land use [18]

Variations

NIMBY and NIMBYs , NIMBYs , and NIMBYists , refer to a specific case. As such, their use is inherently contentious. The term is usually applied to opponents of a development, implying that they have narrow, selfish, or myopic views. Its use is often pejorative . [19]

Not in My Neighborhood

The term Not in My Neighborhood (or NIMN ) is also frequently used. [20] “NIMN” additionally refers to legislative actions or private agreements made with the object of maintaining racial identity within a particular neighborhood or residential area by forcefully maintaining members of other races from moving into the area. [21] In that regard, “Not in My Neighborhood,” by Antero Pietila, author and journalist, describes the issue of baltimore throughout the 20th century and the systemic, racially based citywide separation it caused. [22]

NIABY

Opposition to certain developments in the world is characterized by the acronym NIABY (“Not In Anyone’s Backyard”). The building of nuclear power plants , for example, is often subject to NIABY concerns. [23]

NAMBI

NAMBI (“Not Against My Business or Industry”) is used for any other business that expresses the principle of self-injury or that of the business environment. interests only and not for any other business that would be affected by the actions or policies. [23]The term serves as a criticism of the kind of outrage that business expresses when disingenuously portraying its protections for the benefit of all other businesses. Such a labeling would occur, for example, when they would be challenged by activists – they would find themselves challenged where they seek urban development. This term also serves as a rhetorical counter to NIMBY. Seen as an equivalent to NIMBY by those opposing the business or industry in question.

BANANA

BANANA is an acronym for “Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything” (or “Anyone”). [24] [25] The term is most often used to criticize the ongoing opposition of certain advocacy groups to land development . [26] The apparent opposition of some activists to every instance of proposed development suggests that they seek a complete absence of new growth. The term is commonly used in the context of planning in the United Kingdom . The Sunderland City Council lists the term in their online dictionary of jargon. [27]

PIBBY

PIBBY is an acronym for “In Blacks’ Back Yard.” This principle indicates that the people with social, racial, and economic privileges should be built on their own back yards, and that it should be built . Economically disadvantaged people might not be able to hire a lawyer, but they could not have done it. The environmental justice movement has pointed out Nimbyism leads to environmental racism . Robert D. Bullard, Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, Director of the Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University. [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35]

SOBBY

SOBBY is an acronym for “Some Other Bugger ‘s Back Yard” and refers to the state of the art which may be desirable. [36]

Points of debate

Although often used in the past, the use of the concept has been criticized. For instance, the term is frequently used to dismiss groups as selfish or ill-informed, yet these same groups may have overlooked. [37]

In favor of development

Frequently supported debate on the development of higher employment, tax revenue, marginal cost of remote development, safety, and environmental benefits. Proponents of development may accuse locals of egotism , elitism , parochialism, drawbridge mentality , racism and anti- diversity , the inevitability of criticism, and misguided or unrealistic claims of prevention of urban sprawl . If people who do not want to be disturbed by the general need of an establishment, But seen from society’s perspective, the other location might be better, since people living there get disturbed instead. [38]

In favor of local sovereignty

Those labeled as NIMBYs may have a variety of motivations and may be unified only because they oppose a particular project. For example, some may oppose any significant change or development, regardless of type, purpose, or origin. Others, if the project is seen as being white Imposed by outsiders, May hold strong principles of self-governance , local sovereignty , local autonomy, and home rule . These people believe that local people should have the final choice, and that any project affecting the local people should clearly benefit themselves, rather than corporations with remote investors or central governments. [39]Still others may object to a particular project because of its nature, eg, opposing a nuclear power plant, but accepting a local waste management facility as a municipal necessity.

Examples

Canada

Nova Scotia

In July 2012, Residents of Kings County, based on a bylaw, developed over three years of consultation and hearings, allowing wind generators to be constructed nearby. [40] A similar theme arose in September 2009, where residents reside in a wind generator in Digby Neck, Nova Scotia. [41] In January 2011, residents of Lawrencetown, NS openly opposed to a cell tower being built. [42] A proposed development of downtown Dartmouth in August 2012 was also contested by residents. [43]In February 2013, some residents of Lunenburg County were said to be in the area, saying, “It’s health and it’s property devaluation” and “This is an industrial facility in the middle of rural Nova Scotia.” ” [44]

In March 2013, some residents of the community of the Blockhouse of the building and development of a recycling plant, referred to by the business owner as a “dump.” The plant would offer 75 jobs to the community of roughly 5,900 people. [45] In the same month, the municipal councilors of Chester, Nova Scotia, approved the building of wind turbines in the area in a 6-1 vote, despite some local opposition. [46]

United Kingdom

Ashtead, Surrey

In the affluent English village of Ashtead , Surrey , which lies on the outskirts of London , residents objected in 2007 [47] to the conversion of a large, £ 1.7 million residential property. The house has been purchased by a registered charity, SSAFA Forces Help . [47] [48] [49] Local residents objected to the proposal of increased fear and noise, and the possibility of an increased threat of terrorism. They also contended that the SSAFA charity is actually a business, thus setting an unwelcome precedent.[50] Local newspapers ran articles titled “Nimby neighbors ‘war with wounded soldiers’ families” and “No Heroes in my Backyard.”

Ex-servicemen and several members of the British general public organized by SSAFA, and even auctioned the “Self Respect of Ashtead” on eBay . [51]

High Speed ​​2

Particularly in the run up to the final decision on the high-speed road as High Speed ​​2 , BBC News Online reported that many residents of Conservative constituencies were launching objections to the HS2 route based on the effects it would have on them , Whereas HS2 is unlikely to have a beneficial effect on economic conditions. [52] [53] Likewise, Labor MP Natascha Engel -through whose constituency the line would pass-offered to a “passionate defense of nimbyism” in the House of Commons, with views to the effects would have on home- and business- owning constituents. [54]HS2 has also been characterized by residents of the Chilterns and Camden making arguments against the lack of a business case for the line, often as a smokescreen for NIMBYism. On March 17, 2014, it was announced that Camden’s NIMBYs were successful in their HS1-HS2 link railway. [55]

Heathrow Airport

In November 2007, a consultation process was started controversially [56] on January 15, 2009 by UK Government ministers. [57] The project was then canceled on 12 May 2010 by the Cameron Government . [58]

Heathrow Airport has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome License (Number P527) that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction. [59]

Coventry Airport

The airport is owned by CAFCO (Coventry) Limited, a joint venture between Howard Holdings plc [60] and Convergence-AFCO Holdings Limited (CAFCOHL), and in June 2007 had its application to build permanent terminal and passenger facilities turned down by the UK government due to public pressure. [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66]

Wimbledon, London

The London Borough of Merton did not have enough schools for local children who would be reaching school age in 2012 and 2013. Almost all local schools had expanded, but the NIMBY group “Save Our Rec” versus the expansion of Dundonald school on the site of the nearby park’s pavilion . [67]

Hong Kong

When Christian Zheng Sheng College, a correctional school for young drug addicts, opened in 1998, several people called it an eyesore. In June 2009, residents of Mui Wo voiced objection when they announced they are planning to move their campus to an empty school building there.

Italy

The No TAV opposition to the Turin-Lyon high-speed railway is often characterized by NIMBY movement.

Japan

The Muraiken Undō or No Leprosy Patients in Our Prefecture , Japanese public health and social movement, which began between 1929 and 1934.

In 2001, when leprosy prevention was ruled unconstitutional, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Welfare, and the National Diet published statements of apology to leprosy patients and their families. Several prefectural governors made apologies at public sanatoriums.

United States

California

A small number of residents (mostly farmers) in Hanford, California and surrounding areas are opposed to the California High-Speed ​​Rail Authority building high-speed rail near farmland, citing it will bring environmental and economic problems.

Wealthy residents of southern Orange County, CA defeated a local measure that proposed to the decommissioned El Toro Marine Base into a commercial airport, claiming that the airport would be “unsafe” during landings and take-offs as well as create air quality issues. The real issue was the future of Orange County and residents fearing that their property values ​​would decrease. citation needed ] The airport proposal, however, was strongly supported by Northern Orange County residents. The defeat of the local measure resulted in the creation of the Orange County Great Park .

National, state and local environmentalists, South Pasadena, California , South Pasadena, South Pasadena and Pasadena for over 60 years have been successfully opposed to the highly controversial State Route 710 through the cities of Los Angeles (El Sereno) . There has been a federal injunction in place for 41 years of stopping construction of the surface freeway. USC and UCLA 80-year-old controversy because it is a classic example of sustained grass-roots opposition to a government proposal. quote needed ]

Now and for a decade, a struggle in the San Francisco, California between the public voting and the influx of young professionals and tech workers. With no room to expand, construction companies can only build up to meet the growing demand. However, NIMBYism has prevented high rise construction from spreading in San Francisco, citing restrictions on buildings’ shadows and the dramatic changes proposed to the waterfront skyline. [68] The opposition argues that it is more likely to be the case that a person will be more likely to live in a city than a city in the city of San Francisco. [69]

Florida

Similar to the situation in Nantucket Sound, Mass., A minority of residents in St. Lucie County , Florida have vehemently opposed the construction of wind turbines in the county. The construction of the wind turbines is strongly supported by over 80% of county residents according to 2008 Florida Power and Light (FPL) poll. [70] Additionally, the power company proposed to build the turbines in a location on the beach. quote needed ]

In the 1980s, has the agency Known As Palm Beach County Expressway Authority Was FORMED to Develop a series of east / west highways to take people from suburban Palm Beach County into downtown West Palm Beach . This was done in anticipation of population growth that would happen in Palm Beach County that would bring in more traffic. Many neighbors in areas such as Westgate and Lake Belvedere are strongly opposed to this plan. Ultimately the plan was revised to create SR-80 Boulevard into an express roadway by eliminating traffic lights and overpassing other local roadways.

Illinois

In 1959, when Deerfield officials learned that a developer building a neighborhood of African Americans , they issued a stop-work order. An intense debate began about racial integration, property values, and the good faith of the residents, community officials and builders. For a brief time, Deerfield was spotlighted in the national news as “Little Rock of the North.” [71] Supporters of integration have been denounced and ostracized by residents. Eventually, the village passed a referendum to build parks on the property, thus putting an end to the housing development. Two model homes already completed. [71]Otherwise, the land is dormant for years before it was developed into what is now Mitchell Pool Park and Jaycee Park. The first black family did not move into Deerfield until much later, and in years since Greater Asians, more Jews, Asians, Greeks and others. This episode in Deerfield’s history is described in But Not Next Door by Harry and David Rosen, both residents of Deerfield.

Massachusetts

Opposition to two proposed freeways within the MA Route 128 beltway road around Boston-the Inner Belt and the routing of Interstate 95 in Massachusetts into downtown Boston via the Southwest Corridor -were opposed from their proposals during the 1950s era, and finally canceled by the actions of the Governor-General Francis Sargent in 1970. The MBTA Orange Line heavy rail rapid transit line was finally re-located along the Southwest Corridor right-of-way for the canceled I-95’s road in the late 1980s, when the Orange Line’s Washington Street Elevated tracks were torn down at the time.

Some residents and businesses of Cape Cod , Martha’s Vineyard , and Nantucket Island -have Opposed Construction of Cape Wind , a Proposed offshore wind farm in Nantucket Sound . Proponents cite the environmental, economic, and energy security benefits of clean, renewable energy , while opponents are against any obstruction to the viewers and tourists based in the region.

Minnesota

In the late 1990s a proposal for commuter rail on the Dan Patch Corridor entre Minneapolis and Northfield Was Studied. In 2002, the opposition of neighborhoods along the corridor, two states representatives of the suburbs of Bloomington and Edina passed to the legislature. While there is still a lot of room in the world, the two suburbs are now open to the proposal. Lakeville and St. Louis Park .

New York

In Long Island , various electrification and expansion projects of the Long Island Rail Road have been canceled or protracted from the protests of people living near the railroad.

For example, portions of the LIRR’s Main Line Were Supposed to get a third track to Accommodate year expected Increase in Long Island Rail Road ridership once the East Side Access project to Grand Central Terminal is completed, as well as to expand local and reverse peak Service . The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has been proposed to build a third line from Floral Park to Hicksville in the future. [72] [73] Components of the project in the track of right of way, eliminating grade crossings (in conjunction with NYSDOT ), relocating existing stations, and reconfiguringMineola Station . Fierce opposition for building a third track cam from the villages of Floral Park , New Hyde Park , and Garden City , [74] [75] [76] qui Said the building and the resulting and Increased rail services will Reduce the quality of life In Their neighborhoods. The third track project was suspended indefinitely in 2008, but the MTA stressed that it was committed to eventually building the third track of the East Side Access project. [77] New funding for the project was included in a 2016 infrastructure improvement plan by New York Governor Andrew Cuomo . [78]Governor Cuomo’s comments on this article are only available in the following languages: http://www.youtube.com/watch of the plan. [78] Despite the promise of mitigation efforts, several local politicians denounced the governor’s plan within a day of its announcement; Floral Park’s mayor told the New York Times that “we thought this was dead and buried”, [79] while New Hyde Park’s mayor pledged to “fight the governor vehemently on this” and a local state senator called the governor’s plan “dead on arrival . ” [80]

In Port Washington, New York , a quarrel broke out entre les town of North Hempstead and the LIRR yard over a Proposed expansion of Port Washington . To expand the yard, parking lot ownership in the town would need to be made smaller by 40 parking spaces. Local Councilwoman Dina De Giorgio opposed the plan, saying that “The idea of ​​storing these massive trains, adding two storage tracks to Port Washington, will completely ruin the character of the town.” [81] However, the LIRR would be able to provide parking spaces of its own parking lot, also adjacent to the station. [81]

Similarly, opposition to a long-term proposal for a bridge or tunnel to the Long Island Sound with some belief in their communities with an impact on the environment and the environment. result. [82]

See also

  • CAVE People
  • Citizens to Preserve Overton Park c. Volpe
  • Drawbridge mentality
  • Eyesore
  • Fenno’s paradox
  • Freeway revolt
  • Locally unwanted land use (LULU)
  • Luddite
  • Pulp mill conflict between Argentina and Uruguay
  • Smart Growth
  • Somebody Else’s Problem
  • technophobia
  • YIMBY
  • Waste
  • Wind farm opposition

References

  1. Jump up^ “Cambridge Online Dictionaries – meaning of NIMBY” . Retrieved 17 July2015 .
  2. Jump up^ “Oxford Dictionaries – Definition of Nimby” . Retrieved 17 July 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ “Definition of Nimby” . Macmillan Dictionary . Retrieved 17 July 2015 .
  4. Jump up^ Matthew Holehouse (July 23, 2014). “Boris Johnson: Nimbies pretends to care about architecture to block developments” . The Telegraph . Retrieved January 23, 2016 .
  5. Jump up^ Andrew Galvin (August 28, 2015). “Anywhere but here” . OC Weekly . Retrieved January 23, 2016 .
  6. Jump up^ Patrick Wintour (August 4, 2013). “Fracking will meet resistance of southern nimbys, minister warns” . The Guardian . Retrieved January 23,2016 .
  7. Jump up^ “Dictionary and Thesaurus – Merriam-Webster” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  8. Jump up^ Marcotte, Amanda (March 24, 2013). “What North Dakota and Mississippi Reveal About Anti-Choice NIMBYism and Hypocrisy” . HR Reality Check .
  9. Jump up^ James Kanter (November 7, 2007). “Radioactive Nimby: No one wants nuclear waste” . The New York Times . Retrieved January 23, 2016 .
  10. Jump up^ Mick Common (August 24, 2014). “Trident removal is a Nimby position” . The Herald . Scotland . Retrieved January 23, 2016 .
  11. Jump up^ http://www.todayszaman.com/national_nightclub-music-needs-restricting-to-reduce-noise-pollution-say-environmentalists_215054.html
  12. Jump up^ Curbed (20 February 2014). “Hundreds Freight About Superscrapers’ Shadows As Extell Rebuts” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  13. Jump up^ Hager, Carol; Haddad, Mary Alice (March 30, 2015). “Nimby Is Beautiful: Cases of Local Activism and Environmental Innovation Around the World” . Berghahn Books . Retrieved 15 September 2016 – via Google Books.
  14. Jump up^ Spy, Word. “NIMBY – Word Spy” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  15. Jump up^ Livezey, Emilie Travel (6 November 1980). “Hazardous waste” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 – via Christian Science Monitor.
  16. Jump up^ Maiorino, Al. (22 March 2011)”Do You Have Control Over NIMBYism?”Biomass Magazine
  17. Jump up^ “George Carlin on NIMBY” (video) . YouTube . Retrieved 25 April 2012 . We got it in this country (it’s called NIMBY – nimby – Not In My BackYard!
  18. Jump up^ Borell, Klas; Westermark, Åsa (31 October 2016). “Siting of human services facilities and the not in my back yard phenomenon: a critical research review”. Community Development Journal . doi : 10.1093 / cdj / bsw039 .
  19. Jump up^ You can not park here: it’s my retreat, says ‘Nimby’ Clooney( The Times)
  20. Jump up^ Hull, Jon (25 January 1988). “Not In My Neighborhood” . Time . Time Inc. Retrieved 20 May 2010 .
  21. Jump up^ Scharper, Diane (March 21, 2010). “Ex-Sun author traces bigotry’s Baltimore role in shaping” . The Baltimore Sun .
  22. Jump up^ Pietila, Antero (2010). Not in my neighborhood: how bigotry shaped a great American city . Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN  1566638437 .
  23. ^ Jump up to:b translationconference.com
  24. Jump up^ “Absolute Banana” . The New York Times . December 23, 1993 . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  25. Jump up^ “From NIMBYs To DUDEs: The Wacky World Of Plannerese” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  26. Jump up^ BANANAat Wordspy
  27. Jump up^ “Sunderland City Council” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  28. Jump up^ Stewart, James B. (5 April 2002)Book Reviews: “Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality” The Review of Black Political EconomyVolume 20, Number 2, 105-107,doi:10.1007 / BF02689929
  29. Jump up^ Bullard, Robert D. (2008-03-31). Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality . Westview Press. p. 4. ISBN  0813344271 .
  30. Jump up^ “Put It In Blacks Backyard” . Alternet .
  31. Jump up^ “Beyond Resistance! Youth Activism and Community Change: New Democratic … edited by Pedro Noguera, Julio Cammarota, Shawn Ginwright” . Google books .
  32. Jump up^ “Black environmentalists go after PIBBY – ‘put it in blacks’ backyards ‘ ” . AthensNews .
  33. Jump up^ “Integrating Environment and Economy: Strategies for Local and RegionalGovernment edited by Andrew Gouldson, Peter Roberts” . Google Books .
  34. Jump up^ “PIBBY” . The Free Dictionary .
  35. Jump up^ “Book Reviews: American Politics The Evolving Citizen: American Youth and the Changing Norms of Democratic Engagement By Jay P. Childers, University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press . Perspectives on Politics .
  36. Jump up^ Walter, Liz (March 3, 2014). “Move over Yuppies – the Magpies have arrived” . dictionaryblog.cambridge.org . Cambridge Dictionaries Online . Retrieved 13 August 2015 .
  37. Jump up^ Mcclymont, Katie; O’hare, Paul (2008-06-01). ” ” We’re not NIMBYs! “Contrasting local protest groups with idealized conceptions of sustainable communities . Local Environment . 13 (4): 321-335. ISSN  1354-9839 . doi : 10.1080 / 13549830701803273 .
  38. Jump up^ Gerdner, A. & Borell, K. 2003. Neighborhood Reactions to Facilities for Residential Care: A Swedish Survey Study. Journal of Community Practice11 (4): 59-81
  39. Jump up^ The Impact of Corporations on the Commons, Address by Mary Zepernick at the Harvard Divinity School’s Theological Opportunities Program, 21 October 2004,poclad.org
  40. Jump up^ Delaney, Gordon (7 July 2012). “Which way does the wind blow?” . The Chronicle Herald . Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  41. Jump up^ “NIMBY Neck – updated: Contrarian” . Contrarian.ca. September 9, 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  42. Jump up^ “Cell tower in Lawrencetown” . CBC News. January 25, 2011 . Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  43. Jump up^ Croucher, Philip (29 August 2012). “Public hearing Thursday for the Dartmouth Development Center Metro” . Metronews.ca . Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  44. Jump up^ “Lunenburg County debates province’s largest wind farm” . CBC News. March 5, 2013 . Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  45. Jump up^ “Negative feedback towards new development in NS community” . CTV Atlantic News. March 11, 2013 . Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  46. Jump up^ “Chester approves Nova Scotia’s largest wind farm” . CBC News. March 15, 2013 . Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  47. ^ Jump up to:b “No heroes in my backyard” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  48. Jump up^ Headley Court Families Accommodation (SSAFA Forces Help)
  49. Jump up^ “Smart school uniforms linked to academic success of UK’s schools” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  50. Jump up^ “Page Not Found” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  51. Jump up^ Woods, Vicki (28 July 2007). “Legless boys’ mammas? Not in Ashtead” . telegraph.co.uk . London . Retrieved 7 June 2010 .
  52. Jump up^ “The farm lying in the path of the new rail road” . BBC News. 20 December 2010 . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  53. Jump up^ “Tory vs. Tory on high speed rail” . BBC News . Retrieved 15 September2016 .
  54. Jump up^ Natascha Engel (26 June 2013). https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmhansrd/chan24.pdf|chapter-url=missing title ( help ) (PDF) . Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)565 . House of Commons. collar. 378-380.
  55. Jump up^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-26604074
  56. Jump up^ “Britain: Third Heathrow runway approved by the opposition – CNN.com”. CNN . January 15, 2009 . Retrieved 11 May 2010 .
  57. Jump up^ “BBC News – Go-Ahead for New Heathrow Runway” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  58. Jump up^ “BBC News – Heathrow runway plans scrapped by new government” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  59. Jump up^ “Page not found – UK Civil Aviation Authority” (PDF) . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  60. Jump up^ “Howardholdings.com” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  61. Jump up^ “Shock Rejection Plan Hits for Coventry Airport Terminal” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  62. Jump up^ Herbert, Ian (10 July 2007). “Grounded: Another victory in battle to curb airport growth” . The Independent . London.
  63. Jump up^ Warwickdc.gov.uk
  64. Jump up^ “Birmingham Post politics news plus reports council and Government issues affecting Birmingham, the Black Country and the West Midlands” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  65. Jump up^ Docs.google.com
  66. Jump up^ “Breaking News – Coventry Goes Airport Bust And Shuts – House prices and the economy” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  67. Jump up^ “London’s public open space sold off – YouTube” . youtube.com . Retrieved 14 September 2014 .
  68. Jump up^ Dineen, JK “NIMBYs are back: SF builders face growing backlash” . NIMBYs are back: SF builders face growing backlash . “Biz Journals” . Retrieved 6 January 2014 .
  69. Jump up^ Sankin, Aaron (20 July 2012). “8 Washington Luxury Waterfront Condo Development Project Vote Likely To Make It Onto November Ballot” . Huffington Post . Retrieved 29 January 2014 .
  70. Jump up^ “Page not found – www.palmbeachpost.com” . Retrieved 15 September2016 .
  71. ^ Jump up to:b Rosen, Harry ; David Rosen (1962). But Not Next Door . Astor-Honor Inc. ISBN  0-8392-1007-8 .
  72. Jump up^ Main Line Corridor Improvements EIS
  73. Jump up^ “Home-2016-6-13” . Retrieved 15 September 2016 .
  74. Jump up^ Stephanie Mariel Petrellese (11 November 2005). “Mayor Floral Park To Address LIRR Expansion” . The Garden City News . Retrieved 23 December 2006 .
  75. Jump up^ Carisa Keane (24 June 2005). “Residents: MTA / LIRR Needs to Get on Right Track” . New Hyde Park Illustrated News . Retrieved 23 December2006 .
  76. Jump up^ Stephanie Mariel Petrellese (15 December 2006). “Village Meets With LIRR On” Third Track “Project” . The Garden City News . Retrieved 23 December 2006 .
  77. Jump up^ Nardiello, Carolyn (16 September 2008). “Third-Track Plan Is not Dead, LIRR Insists” . The New York Times . Retrieved 31 July 2012 .
  78. ^ Jump up to:b Madore, James T. (2016-01-05). “Andrew Cuomo tells Long Island Association he’ll push LIRR third track, LI Sound Tunnel” . Newsday . Retrieved 2016-01-07 .
  79. Jump up^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (2016-01-05). “Cuomo Revives Long-Stalled Plan to Add Track to LIRR” . The New York Times . p. A18 . Retrieved 2016-01-07 .
  80. Jump up^ Manskar, Noah (2016-01-07). “Cuomo revives LIRR third track plans” . The Island Now . Retrieved 2016-01-08 .
  81. ^ Jump up to:b “LIRR map Would run more trains to NYC” . Newsday. May 14, 2013 . Retrieved 7 March 2014 .
  82. Jump up^ Andersen, Steve; Herman, Ralph; Willinger, Douglas A .; Schlictman, Paul. “Overview: Oyster Bay-Rye Bridge (I-287, unbuilt)” .

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *