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Marilyn Waring

Marilyn Joy Waring CNZM (born 7 October 1952), is a New Zealand feminist , politician, activist for female human rights and environmental issues, development consultant and United Nations expert, and author and academic, known as a leading founder of the discipline of feminist economics . [1]

She served as a member of the Parliament of New Zealand for the conservative New Zealand National Party , successively representing the constituencies of Raglan and Waipa , between 1975 and 1984. Aged 23, she was the youngest member of parliament at the time of her election. As a member of Parliament, she served as Chairman of the Public Expenditure Committee , Senior Government Member of the Foreign Affairs Committee and member of the Disarmament and Arms Control Committee. Between 1978 and 1981 she was the sole woman in the government caucus. [2] Waring precipitated the 1984 general electionby threating to vote for the opposition-sponsored nuclear-free New Zealand , Prime Minister Rob Muldoon to call a snap election, stating that Waring’s “anti-nuclear stance feminist” is threatening its ability to govern. [3] The nuclear-free New Zealand legislation was subsequently enacted by the New Labor Law, and has been a sacrosanct touchstone of New Zealand foreign policy.

After leaving parliament, Waring obtains a D.Phil. in political economy (1989). [4] Her 1988 book If Women Counted (originally published with an introduction by Gloria Steinem ) is a feminist analysis of modern economics, which argues that women’s work and the value of nature are not taken into account. It “persuaded the United Nations to redefine gross domestic product ,” and “new concepts in the countries of the world” and “the founding document of the discipline of feminist economics.” [1]

Since 2006, Waring has-been a Professor of Public Policy at the Institute of Public Policy at AUT in Auckland , New Zealand, is focusing governance and public policy , political economy , gender analysis , and human rights . She has held Fellowship at Harvard and Rutgers Universities. Waring was a member of the Board of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand from 2005 to 2009, and has worked for the Commonwealth Secretariat , the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC),United Nations Development Program , Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI), and the International Development Research Center (Ottawa, Canada).

Oscar-winning director Land Nash , titled Who’s Counting? Marilyn Waring on Sex, Lies and Global Economics . [5] She became a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2008 New Year Honors , for her services to women and economics, [6] and was awarded an honorary D.Litt. in 2011. [7] In 2012, she was included on the Wired Smart Magazine of “50 people who will change the world.” [8] [9] An anthology named Counting on Marilyn Waring: New Advances in Feminist Economicswas published in 2014, edited by Margunn Bjørnholt and Ailsa McKay, and with contributions from a diverse group of scholars on made in the field of the publication of If Women Counted . [10]


Waring’s recent work has focused on women’s work as an issue of international human rights. She has also done activist work on behalf of women imprisoned or denied refugee status because of what she calls “feminist political issues beyond the restricted definitions and practices of international human rights”.

She est devenu Well Known in Canada Following a 1995 National Film Board of Canada video documentary is her work, Who’s Counting: Sex, Lies and Global Economics .

It has been outspokenly criticized the concept of GDP , which has become a foundation of the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA) following World War II . It is a system which ‘counts oil spills and wars as economic growth, while child-rearing and housekeeping are deemed valueless’. [11] [12]

Waring Speaks Publicly we gay and lesbian rights, Most Recently in media of same-sex marriages . [13] The New Zealand Truth tabloid newspaper ” outed ” her as a lesbian in 1976. [14] She refused to comment on the time [15] and the Prime Minister, Muldoon Rob , moved swiftly to minimize publicity and protect her, the general attitude among politicians being a private matter. [16] Also, Waring’s strong pro-choice identification and vocal feminism would overshadow her lesbianism. Since she left Parliament in 1984, Waring has more openly recognizing her sexual orientation.[17]

She teaches on the inequities of globalization, and gives conferences to high schools. quote needed ]


Early life

In 1973, Waring received an Honors BA in Political Science and International Politics from Victoria University of Wellington .

Political career

New Zealand Parliament
Years Term Electorate Party
1975 -1978 38th Raglan National
1978 -1981 39th Waipa National
1981 -1984 40th Waipa National

In the 1975 general election, she became the New Zealand National Party member of Parliament for the Raglan electorate. [18] Her great grandfather, [19] Harry (Arthur Henry) Waring, [20] had contested the Raglan seat for the forerunner of National, the Reform Party , in 1927 . [21]

Together with Colleen Dewe , at the time of their election, they were only the fourteenth and fifteenth women elected members of Parliament in New Zealand. She was only one of two women in the government caucus and only one of four women elected in the 1975 election. After the 1978 election she was the only female MP, until Ruth Richardson was elected at the 1981 election.

She fell out with Prime Minister Robert Muldoon Almost time immediately, and There Were Several episodes of conflict, ALTHOUGH aussi They shared views are some issues Such As welfare payments to single mothers, Where Muldoon Was a believer in the welfare state .

During the period in Parliament, she served as Chairman of the Public Expenditure Committee , Senior Government Member of the Foreign Affairs Committee, and on the Disarmament and Arms Control Committee. The appointment to the Public Expenditure Committee after the 1978 election was a considerable achievement for a member of only three years’ standing. According to Barry Gustafson ,

Waring that it ‘just fell off my flesh’ when Muldoon, without any prior consultation, announced that it would be chairperson of the very influential Public Expenditure Committee. This was a major position for an MP of only three years’ experience and even more in the light of Waring’s youth and controversial first term. Muldoon, however, knew that he had similar views and values ​​on the economy, and that he had the ability to cope with complex investigation and analysis. He was well aware that she would not be intimidated by ministers or senior officials. [22]

She also served on the Select Committee for Violent Offending, taking a particular interest in the Aroha Trust, formed by Black Power Women. [23] As a Member of Parliament, she was also the New Zealand Observer at the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women , and chaired the New Zealand Delegation to the OECD Conference on the Role of Women in the Economy in 1978. [24] ]

New Zealand and the United States, on the issue of a nuclear-free issue , on the issue of nuclear weapons and disarmament issues. support the Government on confidence. Since the National Party had only one seat, the government would be likely to lose one’s way.

That evening Muldoon decided to call a snap election to be held on July 14th (a general election was due at the end of the year). The election was a disaster for the National Party. Muldoon’s waring told biographer that she had deliberately sought to provoke Muldoon into this action. [25]

Academic work

In 1984 Waring Left Politics and Returned to Lecturing, where the research is focused on well-being, human rights and economic factors that influence legislation and aid.

In 1988 she published If Women Counted . The book has been published as Counting for Nothing , but is most widely known under the first title. It criticizes the use of GDP as a surrogate for “progress,” and argues that lacking evaluation of women and nature drives decisions in globalization that have unintended dreadful consequences for the world. According to Julie A. Nelson ,

“Marilyn Waring’s work has been made to work by women, and the damage has been done.” Her book […] Ways of valuing, preserving, and rewarding the work of the elderly, by nature and by nature In recent decades, the field of feminist economics has expanded and widened to encompass these topics and more. ” [26]

A highly influential thinker and practitioner, his work has influenced both academia and United Nations policies. [8]

In 1989 Waring gained a D.Phil. in political economy from the University of Waikato with a thesis on the United Nations System of National Accounts , [4] [27] and in 1990 University of Waikato Research Council grant to continue work on “female human rights.”

Between 1991 and 1994, Warner served as Senior Lecturer in Public Policy and the Politics of Human Rights with the Department of Politics at the University of Waikato, New Zealand.

In May 2006, Waring was appointed Professor of Public Policy at the Institute for Public Policy (IPP) at AUT. Her research focuses on governance and public policy , political economy , gender analysis , and human rights .

She was one of 16 prominent intellectuals in 2007, along with Ken Loach , Maude Barlow , Walden Bello and Susan George . [28]

In 2014, the anthology Counting on Marilyn Waring: New Advances in Feminist Economics , edited by Margunn Bjørnholt and Ailsa McKay , was published. According to Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries , the book explores “a wide range of issues-including the meaning of economic growth and activity to consumption, health care, mortality, unpaid household work, mothering, education, nutrition, equality, and sustainability “and reveals” the breadth, depth, and substance that can grow from innovative ideas and critical analysis. ” [29] Diane Elsonargues that “despite many valiant efforts, this book is an imaginative contribution to an ongoing struggle.” [30]

According to Wired ,

“Marilyn Waring is an extremely clear thinker on the disastrous consequences of using a GDP as a surrogate for” progress “or” wellbeing “in a country. We must realize that we need to address the issues of health care, environmental issues, food security, democracy and women’s rights in isolation. as a set of interrelated issues, and anyone who wants to make a difference in the human condition. [8]

She was a board member of the Association for Women’s Rights in Development . [31]


She and Ngahuia Te Awekotuku contributed the piece “Foreigners in our own land” to the 1984 anthology Sisterhood Is Global: The International Women’s Movement Anthology , edited by Robin Morgan . [32]


Since 1984 and in between her academic and activist engagements, Waring farmed angora goats and dry stock, latterly on her hill-farm north of Auckland. Her experiences of life on the farm, international issues, New Zealand politics, feminist issues, and women of influence, were recorded in the Lifetime of a Goat: Writings 1984-2000 ; her popular Listener columns Letters to My Sisters from 1984 to 1989, form the basis. [33] She organizes her farm for maximum simplicity and self-sufficiency. [34] Waring the farm to become a dweller on turning 50. citation needed ]

Awards and recognitions

  • 2014 New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) Economics Award – to recognize and reward specific contributions in the fields of economic economics, economic dissemination, and economic policymaking New Zealand [35]
  • 2013 Inaugural Westpac / Fairfax “Women of Influence Awards” – winner of the Science and Innovation Category [36]
  • 2013 Amnesty International New Zealand’s Human Rights Defender Award [37]
  • 2011 Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) Honoris causa , Glasgow Caledonian University , for her “outstanding international contribution towards the understanding of feminism and female human rights” [7]
  • 2008 Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit , for her “services to women and economics”
  • 2000 The College of Nurses (Aotearoa) Announces an Annual Award for Marilyn Waring Scholarship
  • 1995 Hiroshima Day: Special Award of NZ Foundation for Peace Studies for Peacework
  • 1993 Centenary Medal Suffrage
  • 1990 Commemorative Medal
  • 1977 Queen Elizabeth Silver II Jubilee Medal

Selected works

  • Waring, Marilyn. Women, Politics, and Power: Essays , Unwin Paperbacks-Port Nicholson Press (1984). Issues on women in Parliament, New Zealand apartheid and sport, Nuclear Free New Zealand . ISBN  0-86861-562-5
  • Waring, Marilyn. If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics , Harper & Row (1988), republished by Macmillan , Allen & Unwin and University of Toronto Press Several times under icts original title and hast Counting for Nothing
  • Waring, Marilyn. Three Masquerades: Essays on Equality, Work and Hu (man) Rights , Auckland: Auckland University Press with Bridget Williams Books (1996) ISBN  0-8020-8076-6 . Three Masquerades includes references to Waring ‘s years in Parliament, which she describes as “an experience of counterfeit equality”. It also looks at her experiences with farming and with the development field, where she was “daily confronted with the travesty of excluding women’s unpaid work from the policy-making process”.
  • Waring, Marilyn. In the Lifetime of a Goat: Writings 1984-2000 , Bridget Williams Books (April, 2004) ISBN  1-877242-09-8
  • Waring, Marilyn. Managing Mayhem: Work Life Balance in New Zealand , Dunmore Publishing (2007). ISBN  9781877399282
  • Waring, Marilyn. 1 Way 2 C the World: Writings 1984-2006 , University of Toronto Press (2011)
  • Anit N Mukherjee, Marilyn Waring, Meena Shivdas, Robert Carr. Who Cares ?: The Economics of Dignity , Commonwealth Secretariat (2011). ISBN  978-1-84929-019-7
  • Waring, Marilyn & Kearins, Kate. Thesis Survivor Stories , Exisle Publishing (2011). Practical Advice on Getting Your PhD Gold Masters Thesis. ISBN  978-0-9582997-2-5
  • Anit N Mukherjee, Elizabeth Reid, Marilyn Waring, Meena Shivdas. Anticipatory Social Protection: Commonwealth Secretariat (2013). ISBN  978-1-84929-095-1


  • Who’s Counting? Marilyn Waring on Sex, Lies and Global Economics (1995). Directed by Terre Nash and produced by the National Film Board of Canada . The movie can be viewed at nfb.ca .


  • Marilyn Waring on TUC Radio . This is an audio version of “Who’s Counting?” video (also called “Counting for Nothing”). Direct link to audio is here. [38]


  • ” Working Class Hero ” ( John Lennon cover) b / w Could not Get It Right ( Climax Blues Band cover) (1980). [39] [ unreliable source? ]

See also

  • New Zealand general election, 1984
  • Eco-feminism
  • Triple bottom line
  • Feminist economics
  • List of feminist economists
  • Gay rights in New Zealand
  • Australian and New Zealand Association for Feminist Economics (ANZAFFE)

Further reading

  • Counting on Marilyn Waring: new advances in feminist economics . Margunn Bjørnholt and Ailsa McKay (eds.). Bradford, ON. ISBN  9781927335277 . OCLC  900276942 .


  1. ^ Jump up to:b Langeland, Terje (18 June 2013). “Unaccounted Women for Global Economy Proves Waring Influence” . Bloomberg . Archived from the original on 19 June 2013 . Retrieved 18 June 2013 .
  2. Jump up^ Gustafson, Barry (1986). The First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party . Auckland: Reed Methuen. p. 286. ISBN  0-474-00177-6 .
  3. Jump up^ “Marilyn Waring appointed to position at AUT” . Scoop. 31 May 2006 . Retrieved 10 May 2010 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b “Marilyn Waring join AUT” . Inside AUT. July 2006 . Retrieved 4 May2010 .
  5. Jump up^ “Who’s Counting? Marilyn Waring on Sex, Lies and Global Economics” . National Film Board of Canada . Retrieved 6 June 2011 .
  6. Jump up^ “New Year Honor for Marilyn Waring” . GayNZ.com. 31 December 2007 . Retrieved 4 May 2010 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:b “Professor Awarded with Honorary Degree from Scotland” . Auckland University of Technology . May 24, 2011 . Retrieved 26 May 2010 .
  8. ^ Jump up to:c “The Smart List 2012: 50 people who will change the world” . Wired.co.uk . Retrieved 2012-05-24 .
  9. Jump up^ “Marilyn Waring makes Wired Magazine ‘Smart List ‘ ” . Ipp.aut.ac.nz. 2012-03-23 . Retrieved 2012-05-24 .
  10. Jump up^ Bjørnholt, Margunn ; McKay, Ailsa , eds. (2014). Counting on Marilyn Waring: New Advances in Feminist Economics . Demeter Press / Brunswick Books. ISBN  9781927335277 . With a foreword byJulie A. Nelson.
  11. Jump up^ Bjørnholt, Margunn (2010). “Waring, Marilyn”. In Andrea O’Reilly . Encyclopedia of Motherhood . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications . pp. 1260-1261. ISBN  978-1-4129-6846-1 .
  12. Jump up^ Fischlin, Daniel; Nandorfy, Martha (2007). The Concise Guide to Global Human Rights . Black Rose Books. ISBN  978-1-55164-294-9 .
  13. Jump up^ Duder, Karen (2001). “Waring, Marilyn”. In Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon . Who’s Who in Contemporary Gay & Lesbian History: From World War II to the Present . London: Routledge . p. 433. ISBN  0-415-29161-5 .
  14. Jump up^ Gianoulis, Tina (2006). “Waring, Marilyn” . In Claude J. Summers . Glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture.
  15. Jump up^ Young, Hugh (2002). “Gay, Lesbians, Bisexual and Transgender New Zealand History Part 2” . Queer History New Zealand . Retrieved 4 May2010 .
  16. Jump up^ Gustafson, Barry (2000). His Way: A Biography of Robert Muldoon . Auckland: Auckland University Press . p. 196. ISBN  978-1-86940-243-3 .
  17. Jump up^ Young, Hugh (2002). “Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and New Zealand Transgender Part 4” . Queer History New Zealand . Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  18. Jump up^ McCallum, Janet (1993). Women in the House – Members of Parliament in New Zealand . Wellington: Cape Catley . ISBN  0-908561-41-5 .
  19. Jump up^ Waring, Marilyn (2009). 1 Way 2 C the World: Writings 1984-2006 . University of Toronto Press. p. 10.
  20. Jump up^ “DEATHS (New Zealand Herald, 1942-01-26)” . paperspast.natlib.govt.nz National Library of New Zealand . Retrieved 2017-05-11 .
  21. Jump up^ “OBITUARY (New Zealand Herald, 1942-01-26)” . paperspast.natlib.govt.nz National Library of New Zealand . Retrieved 2017-05-11 .
  22. Jump up^ Gustafson, Barry (2000). His Way: A Biography of Robert Muldoon . Auckland: Auckland University Press . p. 264. ISBN  978-1-86940-243-3 .
  23. Jump up^ Trust: A true story of Women and Gangs. Pip Desmond. 2009. Page 241.
  24. Jump up^ “Marilyn Waring | The Institute of Politics at Harvard University” . Iop.harvard.edu . Retrieved 2015-08-29 .
  25. Jump up^ Waring interview by Gustafson, 24 February 1993, cited Gustafson,His Wayp. 370 n. 33 and n. 38.
  26. Jump up^ Nelson, Julie A. (2014). “Foreword”. In Bjørnholt, Margunn ; McKay, Ailsa . Counting on Marilyn Waring: New Advances in Feminist Economics . Demeter Press / Brunswick Books. ISBN  9781927335277 .
  27. Jump up^ “Marilyn Waring biography” . marilynwaring.com . Retrieved 22 March2011 .
  28. Jump up^ “Rebel voice of the world” . Inside AUT. March 2007 . Retrieved 10 May2010 .
  29. Jump up^ Sullivan, TE (2014). “Counting on Marilyn Waring: new advances in feminist economics”. Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries . 52(3). doi : 10.5860 / CHOICE.185300 .
  30. Jump up^ Elson, Diane (2015). “Book Review: Counting on Marilyn Waring: new advances in feminist economics” . Feminist Review (109). doi : 10.1057 / fr.2014.58 . Retrieved 25 February 2015 .
  31. Jump up^ “Board of Directors” . AWID . Retrieved 2012-05-24 .
  32. Jump up^ “Table of Contents: Sisterhood is global:” . Catalog.vsc.edu . Retrieved 2015-10-15 .
  33. Jump up^ Waring, Marilyn (2000). “Introduction” . In the Lifetime of a Goat: Writings 1984-2000 . Bridget Williams Books. p. xi. ISBN  9781877242090 .
  34. Jump up^ “Marilyn Waring Pastoral Politico” . Adventure Divas . Retrieved January 12, 2015 .
  35. Jump up^ “Marilyn Waring Professor – 2014 Economics Award winner” . NZIER . Retrieved 2015-08-29 .
  36. Jump up^ “24 October 2013″ Westpac New Zealand ” . Westpac.co.nz . Retrieved 2015-08-29 .
  37. Jump up^ “Amnesty Honors Marilyn Waring – 2013 Human Rights Defender” . Pacific.scoop.co.nz. 2013-05-06 . Retrieved 2015-08-29 .
  38. Jump up^ “Information Program – TUC Radio: Marilyn Waring: Sex, Lies & Global Economics | A-Info Radio Project” . Radio4all.net . Retrieved 2015-08-29 .
  39. Jump up^ “Marilyn Waring – Working Class Hero” . Discogs . Retrieved 4 May 2010.

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