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Left Ecology Freedom

Left Ecology Freedom [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] ( Italian : Sinistra Ecologia Liberta , [12] SEL ) was a democratic socialist [3] political party in Italy , was formed by former members of the Communist Refoundation Party .

The party’s leader was Nichi Vendola , a former President of Apulia . On 17 December 2016, SEL Dissolved into Italian Left , qui Was lancé officiellement have a party in early 2017.

History

Left and Freedom

SEL was formed as an alliance called Left and Freedom ( Sinistra e Libertà , SL) in the run up to the 2009 European Parliament election in the face of the new threshold in February 2009. [5]

At the time of formation, on 16 March 2009, SL included:

  • Movement for the Left (MpS, socialist / communist , leader: Nichi Vendola , 2 MEPs)
  • Socialist Party (PS, social-democratic , leader: Riccardo Nencini , 4 MEPs)
  • Federation of the Greens (FV, green , leader: Grazia Francescato , 2 MEPs)
  • Democratic Left (SD, democratic socialist , leader: Claudio Fava )
  • Unite the Left (UlS, socialist / communist , leaders: Umberto Guidoni , Katia Bellillo , 1 MEP)

The electoral symbol for the 2009 election included the logos of the Party of European Socialists (PES), the Federation of the Greens (a member of the European Greens ), the European United Left-Nordic Green Left (GUE-NGL).

In the election, failed to pass the 4% threshold. Despite that, it was decided that SL would become a party.

Road to the new party

In October 2009, during a party congress, the Greens elected to a new party leader, Angelo Bonelli , and voted to opt out of the process of the foundation of the new party. [13] [14] However, Francescato and her faction decided to keep supporting SL as Ecologists with Left Ecology and Freedom leave the Greens. [15] SL was also weakened by PS when the United Socialists , who were opposed to the integration of PS into SL, walked out. [16] [17] Finally in November SL was hit by the sudden opt-out of the PS. [18] [19] Since November 2009 SL was made up of MpS, SD, UlS, the Ecologists andSocialism and Left , a small minority of people who want to continue the experience of SL. [20]

In December SL was officially launched, [21] and Vendola was elected spokesperson. [22]

After an important meeting in September in Naples , where it was decided to add “Ecology” to the party ‘s name, [23] in December 2009 Left Ecology and Freedom (SEL) held a constituent assembly in Rome . The new symbol was presented and Vendola was confirmed as spokesperson.

SEL, often in coalition with the PS, in the 2010 regional elections , especially in Central and Southern Italy . Overall, SEL won 3.0% of the vote, with the PS at 0.7% and the Greens at 0.2%. In the Apulian election Vendola was re-elected President of the Region and trailed SEL to 9.7%, its best regional result. [24]

Nichi Vendola during the party’s first congress in Florence .

The party was officially founded in Florence on 22-24 October 2010. Vendola was elected president. [25]

Road to the 2013 General Election

In 2011 and 2012 the party has a strong competition to the Democratic Party (PD) in coalition primaries in many cities. In May 2011 Giuliano Pisapia and Massimo Zedda , who had been supported by SEL in primaries, were elected mayors of Milan and Cagliari , respectively. The party gained 5% in Milan, 6% in Turin , 10% in Bologna , 6% in Trieste , 4% in Naples and 7% in Cagliari. quote needed ]

In occasion of the 2011 referendums of June 2011 (on the repeal of a law Allowing the building of nuclear power plants in Italy, the repeal of a law Allowing the privatization of water management and the repeal of so-called “legitimate impediment”) SALT gives full support to the “yes” committees. In May 2012 Marco Doria , another independent close to SEL, was elected Mayor of Genoa .

In August 2012 Vendola annoncé His bid for the primary election in order to select the candidate for Prime Minister of the PD-led left-center coalition in the 2013 general election . On November 25, Vendola won 15.6% of the vote and came third behind Democrats Pier Luigi Bersani (44.9%) and Matteo Renzi (35.5%). In the run-off Vendola supported Bersani, who defeated Renzi 60.9% to 39.1%. [26] SEL selected its candidates for the election through a closed primary in December 2012. [27]

2013 general election

In the 2013 general election , which took place in February 2013, the party was part of the center-left coalition Italy. Common Good , who supported PD Pier Luigi Bersani as candidate for Prime Minister . In the election SEL won 3.2% of the vote, returning 37 deputies and 7 senators. In its Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol ‘s list SEL included some representatives of the Greens of South Tyrol : one of them, Florian Kronbichler , was elected to the Chamber.

On 16 March 2013 Laura Boldrini , an independent member of SEL, was elected President of the Chamber of Deputies .

In September SEL expressed its intention to join the Party of European Socialists (PES), [28] However in January 2014 the party finally endorsed Alexis Tsipras , leader of the Greek Coalition of the Radical Left (Syriza) and standard-bearer of the Party of the European Left in the 2014 European Parliament election , as their chosen candidate for President of the European Commission , [29] and contested the election within the Other Europe electoral list. [30]

2014 European Parliament election

Ahead of the 2014 European Parliament Election Participant, The Other Europe , which was endorsed by Alexis Tsipras and included several intellectuals and the Communist Refoundation Party . In the election of the winner of the vote MEPs.

Right after the election, the party suffered a severe split in its parliamentary ranks as 12 deputies out of 37, including the floor leader Gennaro Migliore (who was replaced by Nicola Fratoianni and, soon after, Arturo Scotto ), left the party over disagreements with the party’s line and started to support the Renzi Cabinet . [31] [32] [33] The bulk of the strength in splinters joined Freedom and Rights – European Socialists , [34] [35] [36] while others Directly Some joined Renzi’s Democratic Party . [37]

Dissolution into Italian Left

In November 2015 SEL formed a joint parliamentary group in the Chamber, named Italian Left (SI), with splinters from the PD (see Future to the Left ) and other parties. [38] [39] In February 2016 SI held its constituent assembly in Rome, where it was announced that it will be a full-fledged party in December. [40] [41] [42] In March 2016 SI Was Established as a sub-group dans le Mixed Group in the Senate: five SALT Senators joined, [43] while other two (Including Sardist Luciano Uras ) [44] refused to do so. [45]

On 17 December 2016, SEL was merged into SI, which would be launched in 2017. [1]

Electoral results

Italian Parliament

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/- Leader
2013 1,089,442 (# 6) 3.2
37/630
Nichi Vendola
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/- Leader
2013 912,347 (# 6) 3.0
7/315
Nichi Vendola

European Parliament

Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/- Leader
2009 958.458 3.1
0/72
Nichi Vendola
2014 ° 1103203 4.0
3/73
Nichi Vendola

° SEL was part of the other Europe list.

Regional Councils

Region Last election # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
Abruzzo 2014 16,151 (# 11) 2.4
1/31
Apulia 2015 108,920 (# 6) 6.5
6/51
Aosta Valley 2013 with the Democratic Party
Basilicata 2013 12,204 (# 7) 5.2
1/21
Calabria 2014 34,120 (# 9) 4.4
1/30
Campania 2015 53,000 (# 11) 2.3
0/51
Emilia-Romagna 2014 38,845 (# 6) 3.2
2/50
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2013 17,764 (# 7) 4.5
3/49
Lazio 2013 103,692 (# 7) 3.7
1/51
Liguria 2015 35,593 (# 5) 6.6
2/31
Lombardy 2013 97.62 (# 8) 1.8
0/80
Market 2015 20,266 (# 8) 3.8
0/31
Molise 2013 5,015 (# 14) 3.0
1/21
Piedmont 2014 40.873 (# 9) 2.1
1/50
Sardinia 2014 35,376 (# 5) 5.2
4/60
Sicily 2012 58.753 (# 12) 3.1
0/90
South Tyrol 2013 with the Greens
Trentino 2013 4,287 (# 11) 1.8
0/35
Tuscany 2015 83.187 (# 5) 6.3
2/41
Umbria 2015 9.010 (# 9) 2.6
1/20
Veneto 2015 20,282 (# 14) 1.1
0/51

Leadership

  • Spokesperson / President: [46] Nichi Vendola (2009-2016)
    • Vice President: Maria Luisa Boccia (2014-2016), citation needed ] Fabio Mussi (2014-2016) citation needed ]
    • Coordinator: Claudio Fava (2009-2013), Francesco Ferrara (2013-2014), Nicola Fratoianni (2014-2016)
  • President of the National Bureau: Fabio Mussi (2010-2014)
  • President of the National Assembly: Maria Luisa Boccia (2010-2014), Paolo Cento (2014-2016)
  • Party Leader in the Chamber of Deputies : Gennaro Migliore (2013-2014), Nicola Fratoianni (2014), Arturo Scotto (2014-2016)
  • Party Leader in the Senate : Loredana De Petris (2013-2016)

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b RAI News (17 December 2016). “Vendola traghetta Salt nella” Sinistra italiana ” ” . RAI .
  2. Jump up^ “Riccione il 2 ° Congresso di Sel: The strada giusta tra crisi social, della politica e a campo largo, has sinistra, da ricostruire – Sinistra Ecologia Libertà” . Sinistra Ecologia Libertà . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:c Wolfram Nordsieck. “Parties and Elections in Europe” . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  4. Jump up^ Alessia Belli (2013). “Limits and potentialities of the Italian and British political systems through the lens of Muslim women in politics”. In Jorgen S. Nielsen. Muslim Political Participation in Europe . Oxford University Press. p. 172. ISBN  978-0-7486-7753-5 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Tom Lansford, ed. (2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014 . SAGE Publications. p. 710. ISBN  978-1-4833-3327-4 .
  6. Jump up^ Bogdan Patrut; Monica Patrut (2014). Social Media in Politics: Case Studies on the Political Power Or Social Media . Springer. p. 71. ISBN  978-3-319-04666-2 .
  7. Jump up^ Central Intelligence Agency (2013). The CIA World Factbook 2014 . Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. p. 1252. ISBN  978-1-62873-451-5 .
  8. Jump up^ Ronald Tiersky; Erik Jones (2014). Europe Today: A Twenty-first Century Introduction . Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 120. ISBN  978-1-4422-2111-6 .
  9. Jump up^ Nichi Vendola, the head of the leftist Left, Ecology, Freedom party was in third place with 14% of the vote-BBC
  10. Jump up^ Nichi Vendola, the openly gay head of the left-wing Left, Ecology, Freedom party was in third place with 15%, while the remaining two candidates, Bruno Tabacci and Laura Puppato, trailed far behind-EurActiv
  11. Jump up^ Members of Left, Ecology, Freedom – a leftwing opposition party – filed an urgent question in the Italian parliament on Thursday, calling on Angelino Alfano, Italy’s interior minister, to explain the deportations and to give assurances of the pair’s safety in view of Kazakhstan’s “disgraceful” human rights record-Financial Times
  12. Jump up^ “Statuto – Sinistra Ecologia Libertà” . Sinistra Ecologia Libertà . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  13. Jump up^ “Soli oa sinistra? Rissa all ‘assembled from Verdi” . Archiviostorico.corriere.it. 2009-12-24 . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  14. Jump up^ “Verdi, a sorpresa vince Angelo Bonelli | Terra – Quotidiano di informazione pulita” . Terranews.it. Archived from the original on 2009-10-15 . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  15. Jump up^ “il giornale di Legambiente – Bonelli presidente, he Sole so spacca” . The Nuova Ecologia.it . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  16. Jump up^ “Socialist Bobo Craxi:” Autonomi da tutti ” ” . Archiviostorico.corriere.it. 2009-12-24 . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  17. Jump up^ Gianni Del Vecchio. “Bobo Craxi – VIP – Europa” . Europa . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  18. Jump up^ “I socialisti oscurano il sito di Sinistra e Libertà The coalizione è in crisi e c’è rischio di scissione – Politica” . Repubblica.it. 2009-11-13 . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  19. Jump up^ “It Documento Approvato All’Unanimita ‘Dalla Segreteria Nazionale – Partito Socialista – Primo Piano” . Partitosocialista.it . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  20. Jump up^ “SOCIALISMOeSINISTRA – Associazione Politica e di Promozione Social e Culturale” . Socialismoesinistra.it. Archived from the original on 2015-10-20 . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  21. Jump up^ “Vendola vara una nuova SEL” . TheRagioni.it . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  22. Jump up^ “Vendola” battezza “he suo movimento Malumori nel Pd” . The Gazzetta del Mezzogiorno.it. 2009-12-21 . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  23. Jump up^ [1] ArchivedSeptember 26, 2009, atArchive.is
  24. Jump up^ “::: Ministero dell’Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni – Regionali del 28 Marzo 2010” (in Italian). Elezionistorico.interno.it . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  25. Jump up^ “Vendola: the sinistra deve ripartire dalla piazza Fiom” . Archiviostorico.corriere.it. 2009-12-24 . Retrieved 2010-12-14 .
  26. Jump up^ Ha vinto Bersani | He post. Ilpost.it (2012-12-02). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  27. Jump up^ Vendola: primarie anche di Sel it 29 e 30, intesa con Bersani – Italia – the Unità – notizie online lavoro, recensioni, cinema, musica. Unita.it (2008-09-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  28. Jump up^ “Ultimate Notizie Online – Agenzia Giornalistica Italia – AGI” . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  29. Jump up^ Alexis Tsipras (25 January 2014). “The letter of Tsipras has Vendola for the congress of salt” . he manifesto . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  30. Jump up^ ” ” The altra Europa with Tsipras “, ecco il nome della lista – Europa Quotidiano” . Europa Quotidiano . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  31. Jump up^ “Effetto Pd Su Sel If dimette Migliore Scissione vicina” . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  32. Jump up^ “Migliore, he groppo in gola” Affidiamoci a Matteo ” ” . Retrieved 9 June2015 .
  33. Jump up^ “Camera.it – ​​XVII Legislatura – Deputati and Organi Parlamentari – Composizione gruppi Parlamentari” . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  34. Jump up^ “Gli ex di Salt fondano Led,” Libertà e diritti “, if avvicinano al Pse – Europa Quotidiano” . Europa Quotidiano . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  35. Jump up^ “I fuoriusciti di Sel danno vita a Libertà e diritti ‘:” No siamo a partito ” ” . Adnkronos . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  36. Jump up^ Mario Lucio Genghini. “Ex Salt Fondano Led Gennaro Migliore:” Possiamo essere aunt cose ” ” . Polisblog.it . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  37. Jump up^ “Salt, reed he tesoriere Sergio Boccadutri Lascia Nichi Vendola E E verso il Pd” . the Espresso . June 25, 2014 . Retrieved 9 June 2015 .
  38. Jump up^ “Nastia ‘Sinistra italiana’, nuovo gruppo di 31 deputati Fassina:” Siamo alternativi al liberismo da Happy Days di Renzi “- Politica” . ANSA.it . 2015-11-07 . Retrieved 2015-12-01 .
  39. Jump up^ “If chiamerà” Sinistra italiana “: domani Sel e gli ex Pd battezzano il nuovo gruppo ‘anti-Renzi ‘ ” . Huffingtonpost.it . Retrieved 2015-12-01 .
  40. Jump up^ http://www.huffingtonpost.it/2016/02/19/cosmopolitica-costituente-sinistra-_n_9275866.html
  41. Jump up^ http://ilmanifesto.info/per-ora-e-sinistra-italiana/
  42. Jump up^http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2016/02/21/news/sinistra_italiana_unioni_civili-133907371/
  43. Jump up^ http://www.senato.it/Leg17/4244
  44. Jump up^ http://www.sardiniapost.it/politica/sel-divisa-tra-svolta-sovranista-e-sinistra-italiana-geografia-di-una-guerra/
  45. Jump up^ http://ilmanifesto.info/no-al-verticismo-alla-camera-i-dubbi-sul-nuovo-partito/
  46. Jump up^ The role of spokesperson was renamed as president at the 2010 congress.

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