Home » Environmentalism » kaitiaki


Kaitiaki is a New Zealand term used for the Māori concept of guardianship , for the sky , the sea , and the land. A kaitiaki is a guardian , and the process and practices of protecting and looking after the environment are referred to as kaitiakitanga [1]

The concept and terminology-have-been increasingly Brought into public policy is trusteeship or guardianship-in Particular with the environmental and resource controls under the Resource Management Act .

Modern uses of the term

The term is also widely used in New Zealand for general roles of trusteeship or guardianship-especially in public sector organizations, as these examples demonstrate:

  • Proposed Governance-Kaitiaki group to oversee electronic authentication by government [2]
  • New Zealand’s Chief Ombudsman is “Nga Kaitiaki Mana Tangata” in Māori (ie “The guardian of the people”) [3]
  • The role of kaitiaki in the management of the Koha software project [4]


The long-established Māori system of environmental management is holistic. It is a system that provides for the environment, providing a process of preventing intrusions that cause permanent imbalances and guards against environmental damage. Kaitiakitanga is a concept that has “roots deeply embedded in the complex code of tikanga .” [5] Kaitiakitanga is a broad notion which includes the following ideas: guardianship, care, wise management, however, while kaitiakitanga is a proactive and preventative approach environmental management, this traditional management system has not always had an opportunity.


Traditionally all Māori trace their ancestry to the beginning of existence, the single entity that became Ranginui and Papatūānuku . [6] Ranginui became the sky and Papatūānuku the mother earth, with their children taking the form of the various physical elements that humans eventually emerged from. This genealogy is a bond between humans and the rest of the physical world both “immutable and inseparable”. [5] Papatūānuku, embodied in the physical form of the earth continues to provide sustenance for all. Accordingly, Māori read more on the interpretation of kaitiakitanga than just the surface of English.


A number of government act provides for the recognition of the Treaty of Waitangi and kaitiakitanga, including the 1987 Conservation Act, but perhaps most importantly is the 1991 Resource Management Act (RMA) and its amendments. Under Section 7 of the RMA, all members of the RMA are members of the RMA. [7]Through the RMA the concept of kaitiakitanga has been given a statutory definition. This definition of kaitiakitanga was given in the RMA in section 2 (1) as “the exercise of guardianship; and in relation to a resource, including the ethic of stewardship based on the nature of the resource itself “. HOWEVER, opposition to this definition and interpretation [8] resulted in this being white in the Amended Resource Management Amendment Act 1997 to “the exercise of guardianship by the tangata whenua of an area in according with tikanga Māori in relation to natural and physical resources; and includes the ethics of stewardship “. [7]Despite this definition in RMA, it is the Papatipu Rūnangaholding manawhenua tribal authority over a particular area or resource that will be able to determine the characteristics of kaitiakitanga and how it will be expressed. [9] In addition to the RMA, the New Zealand Fisheries Act 1996 , Part 9, provides for customary fisheries management, without directly identifying this management as kaitiakitanga. [10]

Further, there is the role of Tangata Tiaki, which is appointed by the Ministry of Fisheries and Fisheries, and appointed by the Ministry of Fisheries. [10] Tangata Tiaki are responsible for Issuing allowded to catch fish in Their area for Customary use and must carry thesis catches to the Ministry of Fisheries na que la Following year’s catch limits can be set Allowing for Customary use beyond the recreational fishing bag-limits . [10] Tangata Tiaki / Kaitiaki may decide to develop management plans for the local government for approval by local tāngata whenua. For the purposes of the RMA these plans are called “Iwi Planning Documents”, there being a requirement for these plans to be considered in any resource management planning.[10] Under the Fisheries Act, plans may also be used for the development of sustainability measures for those in the rhone of the tāngata whenua. Moreover, a kaitiaki has a dual responsibility: firstly, the aim of protecting the mauri ; and secondly, the future, and the future state of the future.

Coastal resource management

Under the RMA, all of them have a mandatory obligation to recognize and make provision for Māori cultural values ​​in all aspects of resource management when preparing and administering regional and district plans, [11] this includes the mandated Coastal Policy Statement. There is a requirement within the RMA for at least one of the New Zealand coastal areas. [7] Thus, with consideration of kaitiakitanga in New Zealand legislation, the practical significance of kaitiakitanga in coastal resource management can be explored. In particular, Policy 2 of the 2010 New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement [12]This calls for coastal managers to a number of aspects concerning tāngata when it concerns the coastal environment. Http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZJQJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ [12] This includes among others to provide opportunities for Māori involvement in decision making, as it relates to the management of the environment and the management of the environment. [12]Any iwi resource management plan needs to be lodged with a relevant regional or district council. Further, councils are also required to consider that they have indicated a wish to develop resource management plans. [12]


The Fisheries Act 1996, under Part 9 and in Particular Section 186, and South Island Customary Fisheries Regulations 1999 Provides for a number of legal tools derived from traditional Kaitiakitanga methods for sustainability That May be applied by local iwi in relation to Customary fishing rights and assist local iwi in the sustainable management and protection of their traditional mahinga kai gathering sites.

Taiapure-local fisheries

A taiapure identified an area that, as a source of food or for spiritual or cultural reasons, has customarily been of special significance to an iwi or hapū. [10] Article 2 of the Treaty of Waitangi The purpose of acknowledgment is to provide for the provision of recognition of rangeland and fisheries . A management committee is appointed by the Minister of Fisheries with the members of the committee being nominated by the tāngata whenua. The taiāpure management committee has the role of recommending regulations that allow for the management of the fish and the management of the fish. [10][13]

Regulations may be related to the following: the species of fish, aquatic life or seaweed that may be taken, b. the quantity of each species that may be taken, c. The dates or seasons that each species may be taken, the size may be taken into account. the method by which each species may be taken and e. the area or areas in which each species may be taken. [10] [13]


Mātaitai are reserves where the management of non-commercial fishing by making bylaws, which has been approved by the Minister of Fisheries. [14] Such reservations identify places of importance for customary food gathering [13]and these reservations can only be applied to other countries and to specific areas of special importance to the tāngata whenua. Commercial fishing is prohibited within these reservations. Tāngata whenua tānagata adjunct tiaki to manage mātaitai, which a tāngata tiaki does by creating the bylaws.


A rāhui is a temporary closure. The purpose of this Agreement is to improve the effectiveness of the Fisheries Act. the size and / or availability of fish stocks, or to recognize their use and management by tāngata whenua. However, under section 186b of the Fisheries Act 1996, the period may be longer than two years after the date of its notification, but may be extended beyond the two-year period. [10] A rahui can be applied for any particular seasons, months, weeks, days or dates.

Case studies



Kaikōura is a small coastal community on the east coast of South Island of New Zealand with a long history of coastal resources and remains an important component of the identity of the local tāngata whenua. Ngāti Kuri, one of 18 Ngāi Tahu papatipu rūnanga , and has had increased opportunities to develop a local community management strategy, incorporating socio-cultural values ​​along with those of the biophysical. [15]This has been done in cooperation with the government, the fisheries stakeholders and the community agencies. There are a number of issues on tāngata when the values ​​of water quality are affected by the impact of these impacts. [9]

Progress in Kaitiakitanga

Environmental management Plan

Rukanga o Kaikoura developed Te Poha o Toha Raumati: Te Runanga o Kaikoura Environmental Management Plan (Te Poha). [16] The plan took effect from 2005. Te poha provides a document that consolidates Ngāti Kuri values, knowledge and perspectives on natural resource and environmental management issues, including the marine marine and is an expression of kaitiakitanga. [16]
The plan has a number to be described in the context of the relationship between the environment and the environment, and to identify the natural environment and the environment. natural resource and environmental management, including the coastal environment, and to provide continuity between the past, the present and the future. [16] All these purposes are intended to be viewed and understood by Ngāti Kuri values.
Further, the purpose of this plan is to provide a tool for the management of natural resources, wāhi tapu and wāhi taonga, but also to give assistance to local, territorial KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWA KURI, KAWAI KURI, KAWAI KURI, KAWAI KURI, KAWAI, KOA, KOA, KOA, KOA, KOA, KOA, KOA, KOA [13]

Kaikoura Marine Strategy

In addition to the Environmental Management Plan there is the Kaikōura Marine Strategy developed by Te Korowai or Te Tai ō Marokura (Kaikōura Coastal Marine Guardians) and is currently in proposal form. [13] Te Korowai membership is not only that of Te Rūnanga o Kaikōura, but also local organizations involved in different levels of responsibility, such as the Rānanga o Ngāi Tahu and the Kaikōura District Council and various concerned government ministries and interest groups. It is this inclusion of local, regional and national organizations that strengthens the opportunities for sustainable development and the implementation of climate change. [15]Kaikoura Marine Strategy has a vision based on four outcomes and four cross cutting implementation actions. [13] These outcomes are fishing for abundance, protecting local treasures, living sustainably, and sustaining customary practices with implementing actions being engaged in understanding, governance, compliance, and monitoring.

Issues and action

For the tāngata, Kaikōura area, Kaikōura area, Kaikōura area. Further, with no fisheries officer based in Kaikōura it is the local community that has been mostly required to monitor fishing in the area. [15] Due to the pressures of the combination of recreational, commercial and customary harvesters depleting fish stocks, a section of the Kaikura Peninsula, see Figure 2. [13] ] This rahui has been very successful. [17]

See also

  • Māori influence on New Zealand English
  • Māori language
  • Māori religion
  • Stewardship (theology)
  • Hima (environmental protection)
  • Coastal Management
  • Traditional Ecological Knowledge


  1. Jump up^ “Environmental Tourism Māori” , NZQA standard unit
  2.  Archived2007-03-08 at theWayback Machine.Jump up ^ “Research of issues for Māori relating to the Online Authentication Project” .
  3. Jump up^ http://www.ombudsmen.govt.nz/
  4. Jump up^ “Who is this Kaitiaki person?” , from koha.org [ permanent dead link ]
  5. ^ Jump up to:a Marsden B , M., & Henare, TA (1992). Kaitiakitanga: A definitive introduction to the holistic world view of the Maori: Unpublished manuscript.
  6. Jump up^ “Ranginui – the sky father”, Te Ara
  7. ^ Jump up to:c “Resource Management Act 1991” , as at 6 April 2012, Parliamentary Counsel Office
  8. Jump up^ Hayes, S. (1996-1999) Defining kaitiakitanga and the Resource Management Act 1991. Auckland University Law Review, 8, 893-899.
  9. ^ Jump up to:b Environment Canterbury (2005). Regional Coastal Environmental Plan for the Canterbury Region. Christchurch, New Zealand: Environment Canterbury.
  10. ^ Jump up to:h http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1996/0088/latestpermanent link dead ] ? Search = DLM394192.html ts_act% 40bill% 40regulation % 40deemedreg_fisheries + _resel_25_h & p = 1 dead link ]
  11. Jump up^ Hemmingsen, SA (2004). Kaitiakitanga: Maori values, uses and Management of the Coast. University of Canterbury, Christchurch.
  12. ^ Jump up to:d New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010
  13. ^ Jump up to:g Te Korowai o te Tai ō Marokura (2011). Kaikōura Marine Strategy: Sustaining Our Sea.
  14. Jump up^ Ministry of Fisheries (2011). South Island Customary Fishing Regulations 1999. Retrieved 27, April, 2012, fromhttp://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Maori/SouthIsland/default.htm
  15. ^ Jump up to:c Hemmingsen, SA (2009). Indigenous Coastal Resource Managemant: An Australian and New Zealand Comparison. Australian National University, Canberra.
  16. ^ Jump up to:c Te Rūnanga o Kaikoura (2005). Te Poha o Toha Raumati: Te Runanga or Kaikōura Environmental Management Plan. Kaikōura, New Zealand: Te Runanga o Kaikōura, Takahanga Marae.
  17. Jump up^ “Kaikoura’s Rahui” Archived2012-05-02 at theWayback Machine., Kaikoura District Council

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *