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Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy , ideology , and social movement of concern for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment , particularly for animals, animals, plants and non-living matter. While environmentalism Focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics , ecologism combined the ideology of social ecologyand environmentalism. Ecologism is more commonly used in continental European languages ​​while ‘environmentalism’ is more commonly used in different languages.

Environmentalism advocates the lawful preservation, restoration and / or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. [1] For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic , environmental ethics , biodiversity , ecology , and the biophilia hypothesis predominantly figure.

At icts crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relationships entre humans and the various natural systems we depend qui They in Such a Way That All the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability . The exact measures and outcomes of this balance are controversial and many are different. These objectives have been appropriated by the color green , [2] but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for greenwashing .

Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism , which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement. [3]


Environmentalism denotes a social movement that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying, activism, and education in order to protect natural resources and ecosystems . The word was first coined in 1922. citation needed ]

An environmentalist is a person who may speak about their natural environment and the sustainable management of their resources. This paper can be used to study the economics of renewable resources , and has been developed in the past, and has been improved in the economy, and has been improved with respect to economic growth and revitalizing our connections with non-human life.

In various ways (for example, grassroots activism and protests), environmentalists and environmental organizations seek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. [4]

In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources, and the protection (and restoration, when necessary) of the natural environment . In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology , health , and human rights .


See also: Conservation movement and Timeline of history of environmentalism

A concern for environmental protection has recurred in various forms, in different parts of the world, throughout history. For example, in Europe, King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after-ict smoke HAD Become a problem. [5] [6] The fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be broken down by the wheelbarrow.

Earlier in the Middle East , the Caliph Abu Bakr in the 630s commanded his army to “Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire,” and “Slay not any of the enemy flock, save for your food.” [7] Arabic medical treatises during the 9th to 13th centuries dealing with environmental and environmental science , including pollution, were written by Al-Kindi , Qusta ibn Luqa , Al-Razi , Ibn al-Jazzar , al-Tamimi , al-Masihi , Avicenna , Ali Ibn Ridwan , Ibn Jumay,Isaac Israeli ben Solomon , Abd-el-latif , Ibn al-Quff, and Ibn al-Nafis . Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, Such As air pollution, water pollution , soil contamination , municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of some localities. [8]

Early environmental legislation

At the advent of steam and electricity the muse of history holds her nose and shuts her eyes ( HG Wells 1918). [9]

The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to Increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere During the Industrial Revolution . The emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gives rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers; after 1900 the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. [10] The first large-scale, modern environmental laws in the form of Britain’s Alkali Acts , passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution ( gaseous hydrochloric acid ) given by the process Leblanc , used to produce soda ash . An Alkali inspector and furnace sub-inspectors are appointed to this pollution. The responsibilities of the inspectorate have been expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958, which places all major heavy industries under the influence of smoke , grit, dust and fumes under supervision.

In industrial cities local experts and reformers, especially after 1890, took the lead in identifying environmental degradation and pollution, and initiating grassroots movements. [11] Typically the highest priority went to water and air pollution. The Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed in 1898 making it one of the oldest environmental NGOs. It was founded by artist Sir William Richmond Blake , frustrated with the cast by coal smoke. Although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the Public Health Act 1875Required to burn their own smoke. It also provided for sanctions against factories that caused large amounts of black smoke. The provisions of this law were extended in 1926 with the Smoke Abatement Act to include other emissions, such as so, ash and gritty particles and to empower local authorities to impose their own regulations.

It was, however, only under the impetus of the Great Smog of 1952 in London, which has been brought to a standstill and may have caused upward of 6,000 deaths that the Clean Air Act 1956was passed and pollution in the city was finally brought to an end. Financial incentives are offered to householders to replace coal fires with alternatives, or for those who prefer, to burn coke instead (which byproduct of town gas production) which produces minimal smoke. ‘Smoke control areas’ were introduced in some towns and cities where they could be burnt and power stations were relocated away from cities. The act forms an important impetus to modern environmentalism, and causes a rethinking of the dangers of environmental degradation to people’s quality of life. [12]

The late 19th century also saw the passage of the first wildlife conservation laws. The zoologist Alfred Newton published a series of investigations into the Desirability of Establishing a Close-Time for the Preservation of Indigenous Animals between 1872 and 1903. His Advocacy for Legislation Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and influenced the passage of the Sea Birds Preservation Act in 1869 as the first nature protection law in the world. [13] [14]

First environmental movements

Early interest in the environment was a feature of the Romantic movement in the early 19th century. The poet William Wordsworth travelled extensively in the Lake District and wrote that it is a “thing in the world”. [15]

Systematic efforts on behalf of the environment only began in the late 19th century; it grew out of the amenity movement in Britain in the 1870s, which was a reaction to industrialization , the growth of cities, and worsening air and water pollution . Starting with the formation of the Commons Preservation Society in 1865, the movement championed rural preservation against the encroachments of industrialization. Robert Hunter , solicitor for the society, worked with Hardwicke Rawnsley , Octavia Hill , and John Ruskinto lead a successful campaign to prevent slipping from the quarries, which would have changed the world of Newlands and Ennerdale . This success led to the formation of the Lake District Defense Society (later to become the Friends of the Lake District). [16]

In 1893 Hill, Hunter and Rawnsley agreed to set up a national body to coordinate environmental conservation efforts across the country; the “National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty ” was Formally Inaugurated in 1894. [17] The organization Obtained secure footing through the 1907 National Trust Bill, qui gave the trust the status of a statutory corporation. [18] and the bill was passed in August 1907. [19]

An early “Back-to-Nature” movement, which anticipated the romantic ideal of modern environmentalism, was advocated by John Ruskin , William Morris , George Bernard Shaw, and Edward Carpenter , who were all against consumerism , pollution, and other activities. were harmful to the natural world. [20] The movement was a reaction to the urban conditions of the industrial towns, where sanitation was awful, pollution levels intolerable and housing terribly cramped. Idealists championed the rural life as a mythical Utopia and advocated a return to it. John Ruskin argued that people should return to asmall piece of English ground, beautiful, peaceful, and fruitful. We will have no steam engines upon it. . . we will have plenty of flowers and vegetables. . . we will have some music and poetry; the children will learn to dance to it and sing it. [21]

Practical ventures in the establishment of small-scale co-operatives and rural traditions, with the “taint of manufacturing or the canker of artificiality”, were enthusiastically revived, including the Morris dance and the maypole . [22]

These ideas also inspired various environmental groups in the UK, such as the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds , established in 1889 by Emily Williamson as a protest group for greater protection for the indigenous birds of the island . [23] [24] The Society attracted growing support from the suburban middle-classes as well as other influential figures, such as the ornithologist Professor Alfred Newton . By 1900, public support for the organization had grown, and it had over 25,000 members. The Garden city movement incorporated into icts Many Environmental Concernsurban planning manifesto; The Socialist League and the Clarion Movement also began to advocate measures of nature conservation . [25]

The movement in the United States began in the late 19th century, with John Muir and Henry David Thoreau making key philosophical contributions. Thoreau was interested in peoples’ relationship with nature and studied by living in a simple life. He published his experiences in the Walden book , which argues that people should become intimately close with nature. Muir Yosemite Valley, Yosemite Valley, and Yosemite Valley . He successfully lobbied congress to form Yosemite National Parkand went on to set up the Sierra Club in 1892. The conservationist principles and the belief in an inherent right of nature were to become the bedrock of modern environmentalism.

In the 20th century, environmental ideas continue to grow in popularity and recognition. Efforts were starting to be made to save some wildlife, especially the American bison . The death of the last passenger pigeon and the endangerment of the American bison helped to focus the minds of conservationists and popularize their concerns. In 1916 the National Park Service was founded by US President Woodrow Wilson .

The Forestry Commission was set up in 1919 in Britain to increase the amount of woodland in Britain by buying land for afforestation and reforestation . The commission was also tasked with promoting forestry and the production of timber for trade. [26] During the 1920s the Commission focused on acquiring land to begin planting new forests; much of the land was previously used for agricultural purposes. By 1939 the Forestry Commission was the largest landowner in Britain. [27]

During the 1930s the Nazis had elements that were supportive of animal rights, zoos and wildlife, [28] and took several measures to ensure their protection. [19] In 1933 the government created a stringent animal-protection law and in 1934, The Reich Hunting Law ( Das Reichsjagdgesetz ) was enacted which limited hunting. [30] [31] Several Nazis were environmentalists (notably Rudolf Hess ), and species protection and animal welfare were significant issues in the diet. [29] In 1935, the regime enacted the “Reich Nature Protection Act” ( Reichsnaturschutzgesetz ). The concept of the DauerwaldThe best practices of the “perpetual forest”, which included such concepts as ” forest management” and “protection”, were also promoted to curb air pollution . [32]

In 1949, A Sand County Almanac by Aldo Leopold was published. It explained Leopold’s belief that humankind should have a moral respect for the environment and that it is unethical to harm it. The book is sometimes called the most influential book on conservation.

Throughout the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and beyond, photography was used to enhance public awareness of the need for environmental protection. David Brower , Ansel Adams and Nancy Newhall created the Sierra Club Exhibit Format Series, which has raised the public awareness of the importance of climate change to the Sierra Club. “This Is Dinosaur” edited by Wallace Stegner with photographs by Martin Litton and Philip Hyde prevented the building of dams within Dinosaur National MonumentThoreau, Leopold and Muir with hard-hitting advertising, lobbying, book distribution, letter writing campaigns, and more. The Yosemite National Park , where photographs persuaded Abraham Lincoln to preserve the beautiful glacier carved landscape for all time. The Sierra Club Exhibit Series Galvanized public opposition to building in the Grand Canyon and protected many other national treasures. The Sierra Club often led a coalition of many environmental groups including the Wilderness Societyand many others. After a focus on preserving wilderness in the 1950s and 1960s, the Sierra Club and other groups broadcasts their focus to include such issues as air pollution and water pollution, population concerns, and curbing the exploitation of natural resources.

Post-war expansion

See also: Steady-state economy

In 1962, Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. The book cataloged the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals in the environment without fully understanding their effects on human health and ecology. The book suggests that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and their use to be a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. [33]The resulting public concern with the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1970, which added DDT to the US in 1972. The limited use of DDTdisease vector control continues to be controversial. The book’s legacy is to produce a greater awareness of environmental issues and an interest in the environment. With this interest in the environment and the environment and the protection of the environment. New pressure groups formed, notably Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth (US) , as well as notable local organizations such as the Wyoming Outdoor Council , which was founded in 1967.

In the 1970s, the environmental movement gained speed around the world as a productive outgrowth of the counterculture movement. [34]

The world’s first political parties to the United States, Tasmania Group Tasmania, Australia and the Values ​​Party of New Zealand . [35] [36] The first green party in Europe was the Popular Movement for the Environment, founded in 1972 in the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel . The first national green party in Europe was PEOPLE, founded in Britain in February 1973, which eventually turned into the Ecology Party , and then the Green Party .

Protection of the environment also became important in the developing world ; the Chipko movement was formed in India under the influence of Mohandas Gandhi and they set up peaceful deforestation by literally hugging trees (leading to the term “tree huggers”). Their peaceful methods of protest and slogan “ecology is permanent economy” were very influential.

Another milestone in the movement was the creation of an Earth Day . Earth Day was first observed in San Francisco and other cities on March 21, 1970, the first day of spring. It was created to give awareness to environmental issues. On March 21, 1971, United Nations Secretary-General U Thant spoke of a spaceship Earth on Earth Day, hereby referring to the ecosystem services to earth supplies to us, and to our obligation to protect it (and with it, ourselves). Earth Day is now coordinated by the Earth Day Network , [37] and is celebrated every year by 175 countries. [38]

The UN’s first major conference on international environmental issues, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (also known as the Stockholm Conference), was held on June 5-16, 1972. It marked a turning point in the development of international environmental politics. [39]

By the mid-1970s, many felt that people were on the edge of environmental disaster. The back-to-the-land movement started to form and ideas of environmental ethics joined with anti-Vietnam War feelings and other political issues. These Individuals Lived outside normal society and started to take it Reviews some of the more radical environmental theories Such As deep ecology . This legislation was adopted in 1973 by the Endangered Species Act in 1973 and the formation of CITES in 1975. Significant amendments were also enacted to the United States Clean Air Act [40] and Clean Water Act .[41]

In 1979, James Lovelock , a British scientist, published Gaia: A new look at life on Earth , which puts forth the Gaia hypothesis ; it is proposed that life on earth be understood as a single organism. This has become an important part of the Deep Green ideology. Throughout the rest of the history of the environment and the argument between the radicals and followers of this Deep Green ideology and more mainstream environmentalists.

21st century

Environmentalism continues to evolve to face up to new issues such as global warming , overpopulation and genetic engineering .

Research demonstrates a decline in the US public interest in 19 different areas of environmental concern. [42] Americans are less likely to be involved in an environmental movement or organization than to identify as “unsympathetic” to an environmental movement than in 2000. [43] This is likely a lingering factor in the Great Recession in 2008. 2005, the percentage of Americans agreeing that the environment should be given priority over economic growth has dropped 10 points, in contrast, those feeling that growth should be given priority “even if the environment suffers to some extent” has risen 12 percent. [43]These numbers point to the growing complexity of environmentalism and its relationship to economics. quote needed ]

New forms of ecoactivism

Tree sitting is a form of activism in which the protester sits in a tree in an attempt to stop the removal of a tree or to break the dead of the longest and most famous tree-sitter being Julia Butterfly Hill , who spent 738 Days in a Redwood California, saving a three-acre tract of forest. [44]

Sit-in is a form of activism where one or any number of people occupy a place as a form of protest. citation needed ] The tactic can be used to promote social change, such as the Greensboro sit-ins, a series of protests in 1960 to stop racial segregation, but can also be used in ecoactivism, as in the Dakota Access Pipeline Protest. [45]

Environmental movement

The environmental movement (a term Sometimes That includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social , and political movement . Though the movement is a représentée par ranks of organisms, Because of the inclusion of environmentalism in the classroom curriculum, [46] [47] the environmental movement: has a younger demographic than is common in other social movements (see seniors green ).

Water pollution, water pollution, weak infrastructure, exposure of organic life to toxins, mono-culture, anti-polythene drive (jhola movement) and various other focuses. Because of these divisions, the environmental movement can be categorized in these primary focuses: environmental science , environmental activism, environmental advocacy, and environmental justice . [48]

Free market environmentalism

Main article: Free-market environmentalism

Free market environmentalism is a theory that argues that the free market , property rights , and the right to provide the best tools to preserve the health and sustainability of the environment. It considers environmental stewardship to be natural, and the expulsion of polluters and other aggressors through individual and class action .

Evangelical environmentalism

Main article: Evangelical environmentalism

Evangelical environmentalism is an environmental movement in the United States of America in which some evangelicals have emphasized biblical mandates concerning humanity’s role as steward and subsequent responsibility for the caretaking of Creation. While the movement is focused on different environmental issues, it is best known for its focus on addressing climate action from a biblically grounded theological perspective.

Preservation and conservation

Main articles: Conservation movement and Conservation in the United States

Environmental protection in the United States and other parts of the world, including Australia, and the use of logging, mining, hunting, and fishing, often to replace them with new activities such as tourism and recreation. [49]Regulations and laws may be enacted for the preservation of natural resources.

Organizations and conferences

Environmental organizations can be global, regional, national or local; they can be government-run or private ( NGO ). Environmentalist activity exists in almost every country. Moreover, groups dedicated to community development and social justice also focus on environmental concerns.

Some US environmental organizations, among them the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Environmental Defense Fund , specialize in lawsuits. Other groups, such as the US-based National Wildlife Federation , the Nature Conservancy , and The Wilderness Society , and global groups like the World Wide Fund for Nature and Friends of the Earth , disseminate information, participate in public hearings , lobby , stage demonstrations , and may purchase land for preservation. Statewide nonprofit organizations such as the Wyoming Outdoor Council often collaborate with these organizations. Smaller groups, including Wildlife Conservation International , conduct research on endangered species and ecosystems . More radical organizations, such as Greenpeace , Earth First! , and the Earth Liberation Front , have more directly affected actions they look as environmentally harmful. While Greenpeace is committed to nonviolent confrontation as a means of bearing witness to environmental wrongs and bringing issues to the public realm for debate, the underground Earth Liberation FrontEngages in the clandestine destruction of property, the release of caged or penned animals, and other criminal acts. Such tactics are regarded as unusual within the movement, however.

On the international level, concern for the environment was the subject of a United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972, attended by 114 nations. Out of this meeting Developed UNEP ( United Nations Environment Program ) and the follow-up United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Other international organisms in supporting development of environmental policies include the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (as share of NAFTA ), the European Environment Agency (EEA), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Environmental protests

” March Against Monsanto “, Vancouver, Canada, May 25, 2013
Main article: List of environmental protests

Notable environmental protests and campaigns include:

  • 2010 Xinfa aluminum plant protest
  • Anti-WAAhnsinns Festival
  • Car-Free Days
  • Camp for Climate Action
  • Campaign against Climate Change
  • Climate Rush
  • Cofán people oil drilling protest (Ecuador)
  • Earth Day
  • Earth First!
  • Earthlife Africa
  • Global Day of Action
  • Gurindji Strike
  • Hands off our Forest
  • Homes before Roads
  • Kupa Piti Kungka Tjuta
  • Love Canal protests
  • March Against Monsanto
  • Nevada Desert Experience
  • Mad Plane
  • Plane Stupid
  • Qidong protest
  • Save Manapouri Campaign
  • Say Yes demonstrations
  • Shifang protest
  • Stop Climate Chaos


Main article: Environmentalist

Notable advocates for environmental protection and sustainability include:

  • Edward Abbey (author)
  • David Attenborough (broadcaster, naturalist)
  • John James Audubon (naturalist)
  • Frances Beinecke (environmentalist and former president of the Natural Resources Defense Council )
  • David Bellamy (botanist)
  • Wendell Berry (farmer, philosopher)
  • Murray Bookchin (anarchist, philosopher, social ecologist)
  • David Brower (writer, activist)
  • Lester Brown (environmental analyst, author)
  • Carol Browner (lawyer and activist)
  • Kevin Buzzacott (Aboriginal activist)
  • Helen Caldicott (medical doctor)
  • Rachel Carson (biologist, writer)
  • Majora Carter (urban revitalization strategist)
  • Sangduen Chailert (conservationist and founder of Elephant Nature Park )
  • Prince Charles (British Royal Family Member)
  • Barry Commoner (biologist, politician)
  • Jacques-Yves Cousteau (explorer, ecologist)
  • Herman Daly ( ecological economist and steady-state theorist )
  • Peter Dauvergne (political scientist)
  • Laurie David (activist and producer)
  • Marina DeBris (environmental artist)
  • Leonardo DiCaprio (actor and environmentalist) [50]
  • Sylvia Earle (marine biologist)
  • Elizabeth Economy (China environment expert)
  • Paul R. Ehrlich (biologist population)
  • Hans-Josef Fell (German Green Partymember)
  • Jane Fonda (actor)
  • Mizuho Fukushima (politician, activist)
  • Peter Garrett (musician, politician)
  • Jane Goodall (Primatologist, Anthropologist, and UN Messenger of Peace )
  • Lois Gibbs (Founder of the Center for Health, Environment and Justice)
  • Al Gore (former Vice President of the United States )
  • Daryl Hannah (activist)
  • James Hansen (scientist)
  • Garrett Hardin (ecologist, ecophilosopher)
  • Denis Hayes (environmentalist and solar power advocate)
  • Julia Butterfly Hill (activist)
  • Tetsunari Iida (sustainable energy advocate)
  • Lisa P. Jackson ( United States Environmental Protection Agency )
  • Aldo Leopold (ecologist)
  • A. Carl Leopold (plant physiologist)
  • James Lovelock (scientist)
  • Amory Lovins (energy policy analyst)
  • Hunter Lovins (environmentalist)
  • Caroline Lucas (politician)
  • Wangari Maathai (activist and Nobel laureate )
  • Bill McKibben (writer, activist)
  • David McTaggart (activist)
  • Chico Mendes (activist)
  • George Monbiot (journalist)
  • John Muir (naturalist, activist)
  • Ralph Nader (activist)
  • Gaylord Nelson (politician)
  • Alan Pears ( environmental consultant and energy efficiency pioneer )
  • Gifford Pinchot (first chief of the USFS )
  • Jonathon Porritt (politician)
  • John Wesley Powell (Second Director of the USGS )
  • Barbara Pyle (documentary and executive producer of Captain Planet and the Planeteers )
  • Phil Radford (environmental, clean energy and democracy advocate, GreenpeaceExecutive Director)
  • Bonnie Raitt (musician)
  • Theodore Roosevelt (former President of the United States )
  • Habiba Sarobi (politician and activist)
  • EF Schumacher (Author of Small is Beautiful )
  • Simran Sethi (environmental journalist)
  • Vandana Shiva (ecofeminist and activist)
  • Marina Silva (politician and activist)
  • Alicia Silverstone (activist and author of The Kind Diet )
  • Swami Sundaranand {Yogi, photographer, and mountaineer}
  • Cass Sunstein (environmental lawyer)
  • David Suzuki (scientist, broadcaster)
  • Henry David Thoreau (writer, philosopher)
  • Stewart Udall ( United States Secretary of the Interior )
  • Jo Valentine (politician and activist)
  • Dominique Voynet (politician and environmentalist)
  • Alice Waters (activist and restaurateur)
  • Gabriel Willow (environmental educator, naturalist)
  • Howard Zahniser (Author of the 1964 Wilderness Act )
  • Erin Brockovich (environmental lawyer and activist)
  • Berta Caceres (environmental and indigenous rights activist)
  • Joni Mitchell (musician, environmental activist)
  • Josh Fox (filmmaker, environmental activist)
  • Xiuhtezcatl Martinez (environmental activist)


See also: List of environmental activists assassinated

Every year, more than 100 environmental activists are murdered throughout the world. [51]

In popular culture

  • The popular media has been used to convey US For instance, the US Forest Service created Smokey the Bear in 1944; he appeared in countless posters, radio and television programs, movies, press releases, and other guises to warn about forest fires. [52] Mark Trail’s comic strip , by environmentalist Ed Dodd , began in 1946; it still appears weekly in 175 newspapers. Another example is the children’s animated show Captain Planet and the Planeteers , created by Ted Turner and Barbara Pylein 1989 to inform children about environmental issues. The show aired for six seasons and 113 episodes, in 100 countries worldwide from 1990 to 1996. [53]
  • Miss Earth is one of the three largest international beauty pageants alongside Miss Universe and Miss World that promotes Environmental Awareness. The reigning titleholders dedicate their year to promote specific projects and often address issues relating to the environment and other global issues through school tours, tree planting activities, street campaigns, coastal clean ups, speaking engagements, shopping mall tours, media guesting, environmental fair, storytelling programs, eco-fashion shows, and other environmental activities. The Miss Earth winner is the spokesman for the Miss Earth Foundation , the United Nations Environment Program(UNEP) and other environmental organizations. The Miss Earth Foundation also works with the environmental departments and ministries of the various countries, various private sectors and corporations, as well as Greenpeace and the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF).
  • Another area of environmentalism is to use art to raise awareness about misuse of the environment. [54] [55] [56] One example is trashion , using trash to create clothes, jewelry, and other objects for the home. Marina DeBris is one of the trilling artists, who focuses on ocean and beach trash.

An alternative view

Many environmentalists believe that it is a matter of urgency (for the sake of life, or the planet, or just for the benefit of the human species), [57] and environmental environmental skeptics and anti -environmentalists do not believe that there is such a need. [58] [ citation needed ] One can also look at oneself as an environmentalist and believe that ‘interference’ with ‘nature’ should be increased . [59]Nevertheless, there is a risk that the shift from the environment to the technical management of natural resources and the dangers of the environment. [60]

See also

  • Conservation ethic
  • Conservation movement
  • Counterculture of the 1960s
  • Bioconservatism
  • Car-free movement
  • Deep ecology
  • Ecology movement
  • Environmental law
  • Environmental movement
  • Environmental organizations
  • Environmental protection
  • Environmental racism
  • Environmental racism in Europe
  • Environmental sociology
  • Filmography of environmentalism
  • Free-market environmentalism
  • Green economy
  • Greening
  • Green politics
  • Green tax shift
  • Greenway (landscape)
  • Human impact on the environment
  • Linear park
  • Miss Earth
  • Natural resource management
  • permaculture
  • Religion and environmentalism
  • Slow movement
  • Sustainability


  1. Jump up^ “Environmentalism – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary” . Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13 . Retrieved 2012-06-20 .
  2. Jump up^ Cat Lincoln (Spring 2009). “Light, Dark and Bright Green Environmentalism” . Green Daily. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009 . Retrieved 2009-11-02 .
  3. Jump up^ Rowell, Andrew (1996). Green Backlash . Routledge. ISBN  978-0415128285 .
  4. Jump up^ Robert Gottlieb,Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement(2005)
  5. Jump up^ David Urbinato (Summer 1994). “London’s Historic ‘Pea-Suppers ‘ ” . United States Environmental Protection Agency . Archived from the original on 2 October 2006 . Retrieved 2006-08-02 .
  6. Jump up^ “Deadly Smog” . PBS. 2003-01-17 . Retrieved 2006-08-02 .
  7. Jump up^ Aboul-Enein, H. Yousuf; Zuhur, Sherifa (2004), Islamic Rulings on Warfare, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, Diane Publishing Co., Darby PA, p. 22, ISBN  9781584871774
  8. Jump up^ Gari, L. (November 2002), “Environmental Treatments on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century”, Environment and History ,8 (4): 475-488, doi : 10.3197 / 096734002129342747
  9. Jump up^ In the Fourth Year: Anticipations of a World Peace, (London: Chatto & Windus), p.
  10. Jump up^ Fleming, James R .; Bethany R. Knorr. “History of the Clean Air Act” . American Meteorological Society . Retrieved 2006-02-14 .
  11. Jump up^ Harold L. Platt,Shock Cities: The Environmental Transformation and Reform of Manchester and Chicago(2005)excerpt.
  12. Jump up^ “London’s Great Smog, 60 Years On” . Retrieved 2012-12-17 .
  13. Jump up^ G. Baeyens; ML Martinez (2007). Coastal Dunes: Ecology and Conservation . Springer. p. 282.
  14. Jump up^ Makel, Jo (2 February 2011). “Protecting seabirds at Bempton Cliffs” . BBC News .
  15. Jump up^ “Nature Conservation in Britain, ca 1870-1945” . Archived from the original on 22 January 2013 . Retrieved 2012-12-17 .
  16. Jump up^ “Canon Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley” ArchivedAugust 6, 2014 at theWayback Machine., Visitcumbria.com, accessed 17 May 2009
  17. Jump up^ “A Proposed National Trust”,The Times, July 17, 1894, p. 12
  18. Jump up^ “Parliamentary Committees”,The Times, July 26, 1907. p. 4
  19. Jump up^ “An Act to incorporate and confer powers on the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty” Archived2 June 2012 at theWayback Machine., The National Trust, accessed 4 June 2012
  20. Jump up^ Gould, Peter C. (1988). Early Green Politics, Brighton, Harvester Press, pgs. 15-19, andWall, Derek, (1994)Green History: A Reader. London, Routledge, pgs. 9-14.
  21. Jump up^ Jan Marsh (1982). Back to the Land: The Pastoral Impulse in England, 1880-1914 . Quartet Books.
  22. Jump up^ ” ‘ Back to nature’ movement nothing new – dates back to 1880 ‘ . Retrieved 2012-12-17 .
  23. Jump up^ “Milestones” . RSPB . Retrieved 19 February 2007 .
  24. Jump up^ “History of the RSPB” . RSPB . Retrieved 19 February 2007 .
  25. Jump up^ Gould, (1988) pgs. 16, 23-4.36-8.84-6.
  26. Jump up^ “Forestry Commission – a brief history” (PDF) . Woodland Trust . Retrieved 11 April 2012 .
  27. Jump up^ Sylvie Nail (July 2008). Forest Policies and Social Change in England . Springer. p. 332. ISBN  9781402083648 .
  28. Jump up^ Thomas R. DeGregori (2002). Bountiful Harvest: Technology, Food Safety, and the Environment . Cato Institute. p. 153. ISBN  1-930865-31-7 .
  29. ^ Jump up to:b Martin Kitchen (2006). A History of Modern Germany, 1800-2000 . Blackwell Publishing. p. 278. ISBN  1-4051-0040-0 .
  30. Jump up^ Hartmut M. Hanauske-Abel, Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and National Socialism in 1933 , BMJ 1996; pp. 1453-1463 (December 7)
  31. Jump up^ “kaltio.fi” . Retrieved 2007-08-15 .
  32. Jump up^ JONATHAN OLSEN “How Green Were the Nazis? Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich (review)”Technology and Culture – Volume 48, Number 1, January 2007, pp. 207-208
  33. Jump up^ Carson, Rachel (1962). Silent Spring . Boston : Houghton Mifflin . ISBN  0-8093-2218-8 . [ page needed ]
  34. Jump up^ /http://www.nytimes.com/1994/12/11/opinion/in-praise-of-the-counterculture.html
  35. Jump up^ Dann, Christine. “The development of the first two Green parties New Zealand and Tasmania” . From Earth’s last islands. The global origins of Green politics . Global Greens. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011 .
  36. Jump up^ Bevan, RA (2001), Petra Kelly: The Other Green, New Political Science, vol. 23, no. 2, November, pp. 181-202
  37. Jump up^ “Resource unavailable” . Earthday.net . Retrieved 2011-04-22 .
  38. Jump up^ “What Is Earth Day?” . Chemistry.about.com. 2012-04-15 . Retrieved 2012-06-20 .
  39. Jump up^ John Baylis, Steve Smith. 2005. The Globalization of World Politics (3rd ed). Oxford. Oxford University Press. P.454-455
  40. Jump up^ Clean Air Act Extension of 1970 84 Stat.  1676,Pub.L. 91-604, 1970-12-31.
  41. Jump up^ Pub.L. 95-217 Archived29 February 2012 at theWayback Machine., December 27, 1977.
  42. Jump up^ McCallum, ML & GW Bury (2013). “Google search patterns suggest declining interest in the environment” . Biodiversity and Conservation . 22(6): 1355-1367. doi : 10.1007 / s10531-013-0476-6 .
  43. ^ Jump up to:b “Environment | Gallup Historical Trends” . Gallup.com . Retrieved 2013-05-15 .
  44. Jump up^ Fountain, Henry (18 June 2006). “Rising Above the Environmental Debate” . New York Times .
  45. Jump up^ Mele, Christopher (2016). “New York Times” . Veterans To Serve as ‘Human Shields’ for Dakota Pipeline Protestors .
  46. Jump up^ Craig Kridel (2010-02-16). Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies . Sage Publications, Inc. p. 341. ISBN  978-1-4129-5883-7 . Retrieved 2010-04-16 .
  47. Jump up^ Jennifer Sinsel (2010-04-15). “Earth Day Activities” . Lesson Planet . Retrieved 2010-04-16 .
  48. Jump up^ http://www.iep.utm.edu/enviro-j/
  49. Jump up^ Cunningham, William P .; et al. (1998). Environmental encyclopedia . Gale Research. ISBN  0-8103-9314-X .
  50. Jump up^ “Leonardo DiCaprio – Leaders – WWF” . World Wildlife Fund . Retrieved 2016-01-31 .
  51. Jump up^ https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jun/20/environmental-activist-murders-global-witness-report
  52. Jump up^ Ellen Earnhardt Morrison,Guardian of the Forest: A History of Smokey Bear and the Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Program(1995)
  53. Jump up^ http://www.barbarapyle.com/captain/
  54. Jump up^ ” ‘ Washed Up’ Art Exhibition Raises Awareness of Plastic Pollution” . Wilson College . Retrieved 2 October 2017 .
  55. Jump up^ “Unmasking Pollution with Climate Art” . UN Climate Change: Climate Action . United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change . Retrieved 2 October 2017 .
  56. Jump up^ Cerini, Marianna (7 December 2016). “How limited edition sneakers designed by Kanye West are helping people breathe in China” . CNN. CNN . Retrieved 2 October 2017 .
  57. Jump up^ Huesemann, Michael H., and Joyce A. Huesemann (2011). Technofix: Why Technology Will not Save Us or the Environment , New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada,ISBN 0865717044, 464 pp.
  58. Jump up^ Bakari, Mohamed El-Kamel. “Globalization and Sustainable Development: False Twins?” New Global Studies 7.3: 23-56.
  59. Jump up^ Neil Paul Cummins “An Evolutionary Perspective on the Relationship Between Humans and Their Surroundings: Geoengineering, the Purpose of Life and the Nature of the Universe”, Cranmore Publications, 2012.
  60. Jump up^ “Vasconcelos, Vitor Vieira” The Professional Environment and the Touch with Nature. “Qualit @ s, v 1, pp. 1-10, 2011” . Pt.scribd.com. 2013-04-28 . Retrieved 2013-05-15 .
    Levels of air pollution rose during the Industrial Revolution , sparking the first modern environmental laws passed in the mid-19th century.

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