Earth Day is an annual event held on April 22. Worldwide , various events are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection . First celebrated in 1970, Earth Day events in more than 193 countries  are now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network. 
On Earth Day 2016, the landmark Paris Agreement was signed by the United States , China , and some 120 other countries.    This has satisfied signing key requirement for the entry into power of the historic draft climate protection treaty adopté by consensus of the 195 nations present at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris.
In 1969 at a UNESCO Conference in San Francisco, peace activist John McConnell proposed a day to honor the Earth and the concept of peace, to be first celebrated on March 21, 1970, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. This day of nature was written in a proclamation written by McConnell and signed by Secretary General U Thant at the United Nations . A month later a separate Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in first held on April 22, 1970. Nelson was later awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom award in recognition of his work. While this April 22 Earth Day was focused on the United States, an organization launched by Denis Hayes , who was the original national coordinator in 1970, took it in 1990 and organized events in 141 nations.  
Numerous Communities Celebrate Earth Week , the entire week of activities focused on the world issues that the world faces. In 2017, the March for Science occurred on Earth Day (April 22, 2017) and will be followed by the People’s Climate Mobilization (April 29, 2017).
Santa Barbara Oil Blowout, 1969
On January 28th, 1969, The Union Oil Platform was off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, blew out. More than three million gallons of oil spewed, killing over 10,000 seabirds, dolphins, seals, and sea lions. As a reaction to this natural disaster, activists have been mobilized to create environmental regulation, and Earth Day. Among the proponents of Earth Day were Selma Rubin, Marc McGinnes, and Bott Bottoms, founder of Get Oil Out. 
Earth Day 1970
The first Earth Day celebrations took place in two thousand colleges and universities, roughly ten thousand primary and secondary schools, and hundreds of communities across the United States. More importantly, it “brought 20 million Americans out into the spring sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform.”  Earth Day Network, chaired by the first Earth Day 1970 organizer Denis Hayes, according to whom Earth Day is now “the largest secular holiday in the world”. than a billion people every year. ”  Environmental groups have sought to make Earth Day in a day of action to change human behavior and provoke policy changes. 
New York City
In the winter of 1969-1970, a group of students met at Columbia University to hear Denis Hayes talk about his plans for Earth Day. Among the group were Fred Kent , Pete Grannis , and Kristin and William Hubbard. This group is united to New York City activities within the national movement. Fred Kent took the lead in renting an office and recruiting volunteers. “The big break came when Mayor Lindsay agreed to shut down Fifth Avenue for the event.” A giant cheer went up in the office on that day, “according to Kristin Hubbard (now Kristin Alexander). ‘From that time we used Mayor Lindsay’s offices and even his staff. I was Speaker Coordinator with Lindsay staffer from Lindsay staffer Judith Crichton. ”
In addition to shutting down Fifth Avenue , John Lindsay Mayor made Central Park available for Earth Day. In Union Square , New York Times, with a total of over 20,000 people in the world.  Since Manhattan was also home to NBC , CBS , ABC , The New York Times , Time , and Newsweek , it provided the best possible anchor for national coverage from their reporters throughout the country. 
US Senator Edmund Muskie was the keynote speaker on Earth Day in Fairmount Park in Philadelphia. Other notable attendees included consumer protection activist and presidential candidate Ralph Nader ; Landscape Architect Ian McHarg ; Nobel prize-winning Harvard Biochemist, George Wald ; US Senate Minority Leader, Hugh Scott ; and poet, Allen Ginsberg .
Earth Day 1990
Mobilizing 200 million people in 141 countries and lifting the status of environmental issues onto the world course, Earth Day activities in 1990 gave a huge boost to recycling worldwide and efforts Helped pave the way for the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro . Unlike the first Earth Day in 1970, this 20th Anniversary was waged with stronger marketing tools, greater access to television and radio, and multimillion-dollar budgets. 
The Earth Day 20 Foundation, assembled by Edward Furia (Project Director of Earth Week in 1970), and Earth Day 1990, edited by Denis Hayes (National Coordinator for Earth Day 1970). Senator Gaylord Nelson , the original founder of Earth Day, was honorary chairman for both groups. The two did not combine forces over disagreements about leadership of a combined organization and incompatible structures and strategies.  Among the disagreements, key Earth Day 20 Foundation organizers were critical of Earth Day 1990 for Hewlett-PackardThe second-biggest emitter of chlorofluorocarbons in Silicon Valley  In terms of marketing, Earth Day 20 has a grassroots approach to organizing and relies largely on localized groups like the National Toxic Campaign , a Boston-based coalition of 1,000 local groups concerned with industrial pollution. Earth Day 1990 employed strategies including focus group testing, direct mail fundraising, and email marketing. 
The Earth Day 20 Foundation highlight highlighted icts April 22 activities in George, Washington , near the Columbia River with a live satellite phone call with members of the historic Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb Who called Expired from Their base camp is Mount Everest to pledge Their Support for world peace and attention to environmental issues.  The Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb was led by Jim Whittaker , the first American to summit Mt. Everest (many years earlier), and marked the first time in history that mountaineers from the United States , Soviet Union , and ChinaMt. Everest. Mt. Everest.  The group also collected more than two tones of trash, which was left behind on Mount Everest from previous climbing expeditions. The master of ceremonies for the Columbia Gorge event was the star TV, John Ratzenberger , from ” Cheers “, and the headlining musician was “Father of Rock and Roll,” Chuck Berry . 
Warner Bros. Records released an Earth Day-themed single in 1990 entitled “Tomorrow’s World”, written by Kix Brooks (who would later become one-half of Brooks & Dunn ) and Pam Tillis .  The song featured vocals from Lynn Anderson , Butch Baker , Shane Barmby , Billy Hill , Suzy Bogguss , Kix Brooks, T. Brown Graham , The Burch Sisters , Holly Dunn , Foster & Lloyd , Gill Vince , William Lee Golden , Highway 101 ,Shelby Lynne , Johnny Rodriguez , Dan Seals , Taylor , Pam Tillis, Mac Wiseman , and Kevin Welch . It charted at number 74 on the Hot Country Songs chart dated May 5, 1990. 
Earth Day 2000
Earth Day 2000 combines Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of Earth Day 1990. This is the first year that Earth Day used the Internet as its primary organizing tool, and it has been proven invaluable nationally and internationally. Kelly Evans, a professional political organizer, served as executive director of the 2000 campaign. The event is more than 5,000 environmental groups outside the United States, reaching hundreds of millions of people in a record 183 countries.  Leonardo DiCaprio was the official host for the event,  and about 400,000 participants stood in the cold rain during the race of the day.
Subsequent Earth Day events
To turn Earth into a sustainable annual event rather than one that occurred every 10 years, Nelson and Bruce Anderson, New Hampshire’s lead organizers in 1990, formed Earth Day USA. Earth Day celebrations through Earth Day celebrations through 1995, including the launch of EarthDay.org. Following the 25th Anniversary in 1995, the baton coordination was handed to Earth Day Network.
Hayes agreed to spearhead another campaign, this time focusing on global warming and pushing for clean energy . The April 22 Earth Day in 2000 Earth Day with the international grassroots activism of the Earth Day 1990. For 2000, Earth Day had the Internet to help link activists around the world. By the time April 22 came around, 5,000 environmental groups around the world were on board reaching out to millions of people in a record 184 countries. Events varied: A talking drum chain traveled from village to village in Gabon , Africa , for example,National Mall in Washington, DC , USA.
Earth Day 2007 was one of the largest Earth Day to date, with many people participating in the activities of Kiev , Ukraine ; Caracas , Venezuela ; Tuvalu ; Manila , Philippines ; Togo ; Madrid , Spain ; London ; and New York .
On 2012 Californians for Population Stabilization (CAPS) brings Earth Day back to human overpopulation.  Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson stated that he was disappointed in followers for neglecting overpopulation.  It is also important for students and young adults to become involved in this issue and to be involved in environmental issues happening now. 
For Earth Day 2017, the Earth Day Network created four toolkits to help organizations wanting to hold teach-ins to the theme “Environmental and Climate Literacy.”  The four toolkits are:
- Earth Day Action Toolkit: Educating and Activating Communities for Change
- Environmental Teach-in Toolkit
- Global Day of Conversation Toolkit for Local Governments
- MobilizeU: Campus Teach-in Toolkit
2017 also saw the Earth Day Network co-organizes the March for Science rally and teach-in at the National Mall in Washington DC . 
The Earth Day name
According to Nelson, the moniker “Earth Day” was “an obvious and logical name” suggested by “a number of people” in the fall of 1969, including, he writes, both “a friend of mine who had been in the field of public relations “and” in New York advertising executive, ” Julian Koenig .  Koenig, who had been on Nelson’s Organizing Committee in 1969, said that the idea came to him by the coincidence of his birthday, April 22; “Earth Day” rhyming with “birthday,” the connection seemed natural.  Other names circulated during the preparations-Nelson himself continued to call the National Environment Teach-In, the national coordinator Denis Hayes used the term Earth Day in his communications and press coverage of the event was “practically unanimous” in its use of “Earth Day , “so the name stuck.  The introduction of the “Earth Day” was also claimed by John McConnell (see “Equinox Earth Day,” below). 
Earth Day Canada
The first Canadian Earth Day was held on Thursday, September 11, 1980, and was organized by Paul D. Tinari, then a graduate student in Engineering Physics / Solar Engineering at Queen’s University. Flora MacDonald , then MP for Kingston and the Islands, and the Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, officially opened Earth Day Week on September 6, 1980 with a ceremonial tree planting and MPs and MPPsacross the country to declare a cross-Canada annual Earth Day. The main activities taking place on the first Earth Day included educational readings given by experts in various environmental fields, garbage and litter pickups by students along city roads and highways as well as tree plantings to replace the dead trees by Dutch Elm Disease.  
Earth Day Canada (EDC) is a national environmental organization founded in 1990 that provides Canadians with practical knowledge, tools, and simple easy-to-accomplish actions to support EDC’s year-round and award-winning programs.
Education: EcoKids supports teachers and students, grades K-8, with free educational resources, curriculum-linked lesson plans including ESL and FSL, and homework help and games for students. EcoMentors offers youth training and resources they need to facilitate local environmental education workshops with their peers and other young Canadians.
Action: EDC’s challenges, contests and campaigns promote practical, culturally relevant and cost-effective solutions to help Canadians. Earth Day (April 22) events.
Recognition and Financial Support: Toyota’s Earth Day Scholarship Program Recognized Tomorrow’s Environmental Leaders Providing $ 20,000 to High School Graduate Students in the Discipline of Their Choice. The Hometown Heroes Award Program is awarded with a $ 10,000 corporate award and a small business award. Earth Day Canada’s Community Environment Fund provides funds for up to $ 20,000 to schools and not-for-profit organizations.
The Diversity Commitment and Inclusion Initiative helps the world reach and engage Canada’s diverse social and cultural communities. The Employee Engagement program works with employers to achieve business and sustainability goals through the inclusion of best practices.
History of the Earth Day Equinox (March 20)
The equinoctial Earth Day is celebrated on the March equinox (around March 20) to mark the precise moment of astronomical spring in the Northern Hemisphere , and of astronomical autumn in the Southern Hemisphere . An equinox in astronomy is that point in time when the Sun is directly above the Earth’s equator, occurring around March 20 and September 23 each year. In most cultures, the equinoxes and solstices are considered to start or separate the seasons .
John McConnell  first introduced the idea of a global holiday called “Earth Day” at the 1969 UNESCO Conference on the Environment. The first Earth Day proclamation was issued by San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto on March 21, 1970. Celebrations were held in various cities, such as San Francisco and Davis, California with a multi-day street party. Secretary-General U Thant supported McConnell’s global initiative to celebrate this annual event; and on February 26, 1971, he signed a proclamation to that effect, saying:
May there be only peaceful and cheerful Earth Days to come for our beautiful Spaceship Earth as it continued to spin and circle in frigid space with icts warm and delicate cargo of animate life. 
United Nations secretary-general Kurt Waldheim observed Earth Day with similar ceremonies on the March equinox in 1972, and the United Nations 22 global event). Margaret Mead added her support for the Earth Day Equinox, and in 1978 declared:
“Earth Day is the first holy day, which transcends all national borders, yet preserves all geographical integrities, spans mountains and oceans and time belts, and makes it all over the world to one resonating agreement, is devoted to the preservation of harmony nature and yet draws upon the triumphs of technology, the measurement of time, and instantaneous communication through space.
Earth Day draws on astronomical phenomena in a new way – which is also the most ancient way – by using the vernal Equinox, the time when the sun crosses the equator. To this point in the annual calendar, EARTH DAY attaches no local or divisor set of symbols, no statement of the truth or superiority of one way of life over another. But the selection of the Equinox makes planetary observance of a possible event, and a flag which shows the Earth, as seen from space, appropriate. ” 
At the moment of the equinox, it is traditional to observe Earth Day by ringing the Japanese Peace Bell , which was donated by Japan to the United Nations.  Over the years, celebrations have occurred in various places worldwide at the same time as the UN celebration. On March 20, 2008, in the United Nations, ceremonies were held in New Zealand, and were hosted in California, Vienna, Paris, Lithuania, Tokyo, and many other locations. The equinox Earth Day at the UN is organized by the Earth Society Foundation. 
Earth Day ringing the peace bell is celebrated around the world in many towns, ringing the Peace Bell in Vienna ,  Berlin , and elsewhere. A memorable event eu lieu at the UN in Geneva, celebrating a Minute for Peace ringing the Japanese Shinagawa Peace Bell with the help of the Geneva Friendship Association and the Global Youth Foundation,  Directly after-in deep mourning about the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster 10 days before.
Beside the Equinox Spring for the Northern Hemisphere, the observance of the Equinox Spring for the Southern Hemisphere in September is of equal importance. The International Day of Peace  is Celebrated on the 21st September, and can be regarded THUS to agree with the original intentions of John McConnell , U Thant and others.
April 22 observances
Growing eco-activism before Earth Day 1970
In 1968, Morton Hilbert and the US Public Health Service organized the Human Ecology Symposium, an environmental conference for students to hear from the effects of environmental degradation on human health.  This was the beginning of Earth Day. For the next two years, Hilbert and students worked on the first Earth Day.  In April 1970-along with a federal proclamation from US Sen. Gaylord Nelson-the first Earth Day was held. 
Project Survival , an early environmentalism-awareness education event, was held at Northwestern University on January 23, 1970. This was the first of several events held by the United States in the lead-up to the first Earth Day. Also, Ralph Nader started talking about the importance of ecology in 1970.
The 1960s had been a very dynamic period for ecology in the US. Pre-1960 grassroots activism against DDT in Nassau County , New York , and widespread opposition to open-air nuclear weapons testing their global nuclear fallout , had inspired Rachel Carson to write her influential bestseller, Silent Spring (1962).
Significance of April 22
Nelson thing the date in order to maximize participation on college campuses for what he conceived as an “environmental teach-in”. He determined the week of April 19-25 was the best bet as it did not fall during exams or spring breaks.  Moreover, it did not conflict with religious holidays such as Easter or Passover, and was late enough to have decent weather. More students were likely to be in class, and there would be less competition with other mid-week events-so he thing Wednesday, April 22. The day also fell after the anniversary of the birth of John Muir . The National Park Service , John Muir National Historic SiteEarth Day (April 21, 22, or 23), called Birthday-Earth Day, in recognition of Earth Day and John Muir’s contribution to the collective consciousness of environmentalism and conservation. 
Unbeknownst to Nelson,  April 22, 1970, was coincidentally the 100th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Lenin , when translated to the Gregorian calendar (which the Soviets adopted in 1918). It was not coincidental that the event was “a Communist trick”, and quoted a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution as saying, “subversive elements plan to make American children live in an environment that is good for them. ”  J. Edgar Hoover , director of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, may have found the Lenin connection intriguing; it was alleged FBI conducted surveillance at the 1970 demonstrations.  The idea that the date was chosen to celebrate Lenin’s centenary still persists in some quarters,   an idea borne out by the similarity with the subbotnikinstituted by Lenin in the United States, as well as in the United States of America. Subbotniks were also imposed on other countries within the compass of Soviet power, including Eastern Europe, and at the height of its power the Soviet Union established a nationwide subbotnik to be celebrated on Lenin’s birthday, April 22, which had been proclaimed to a national holiday celebrating communism by Nikita Khrushchev in 1955.
Earth Day anthems
Earth Anthem (Abhay K)
Our cosmic oasis, cosmic blue pearl
the most beautiful planet in the universe
all the continents and the world
hold together we stand as one species of earth
, brown, white, different colors
we are humans, the earth is our home.
Our cosmic oasis, cosmic blue pearl
The Most Beautiful planet in the universe
all the people and the nations of the world
all for one and one for all
united we unfurl the blue marble flag
black, brown, white, different colors
we are humans, the earth is our home.
“Earth Anthem” by Abhay K
(Under CC by ND-NC) 
There are many songs that are performed on Earth Day, that fall into two categories. Popular songs by contemporary artists. UNESCO has termed Indian poet-diplomat Abhay Kumar’s idea of an official Earth Anthem has a creative and inspiring thought that would contribute to bringing the world together.  Kumar’s “Earth Anthem” of United Nations viz. Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish.  The other two languages are Hindi and Nepali. It was launched in June 2013 on the occasion of theWorld Environment Day by Kapil Sibal and Shashi Tharoor , Union Ministers of India at a position organized by the Indian Council of Cultural Relations in New Delhi.  India’s Central Board of Secondary Education or CBSE has started using it for educational purposes.  Earth Anthem has also been used by partner schools of the British Council Schools Online,  Regent School, Abuja,  Euro School, Kathmandu,  Loreto Kolkata School Day  Assam Valley School among others.  Habitat for Humanity is also supported by the global organization. 
The US Consul General Jennifer McIntyre has called Kumar’s Earth Anthem a significant contribution to Earth Day and a truly anthem for the Earth.  Academy Award winner Hollywood director Jeffrey D. Brown called it a joyous celebration of common humanity. 
Bollywood actress Manisha Koirala and singing nun Ani Choying Drolma -have advocated an official Earth Anthem and appreciated the work done by being white poet-diplomat Abhay K Towards an official Earth Anthem.  Indian film-maker Shyam Benegal has called multi-language lyrics extremely inspiring. 
Earth Day Anthem (William Wallace)
The “Ode to Joy” melody by Beethoven, the official anthem of the European Union , also performed on the Earth Day. Lyrics for the Anthem Earth Day set to “Ode to Joy” are as follows:
Joyful joyful we love our Earth in all its wonderment
Simple gifts of nature That All join into a paradise
Now we must resolve to protect her
show her our love Throughout all time
With our gentle hand and touch
We make our home a newborn world
Now we must resolve to protect her
show her our love Throughout all time
with our gentle hand and touch
We make our home a newborn world 
- March for Science (22 April 2017)
- Air pollution
- Arbor Day
- Net capacity factor
- Carbon footprint
- Copenhagen Accord
- Earth Charter
- Earth Hour
- Expo ’74 : “Celebrating Tomorrow’s Fresh New Environment”
- International Day of Forests
- International Mother Earth Day
- Live Earth
- Pale Blue Dot
- World Environment Day by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
- World Water Day
- Environmental politics
- IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
- Paris Agreement
- Politics of global warming
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