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Alliance 90 / The Greens

Alliance 90 / The Greens , often simply Greens ( German : Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen or Grüne ), is a green political party in Germany , formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980) and Alliance 90 ( Founded during the Revolution of 1989-1990 in East Germany ) in 1993. [5] The focus of the party is on ecological, economic, and social sustainability. Its leaders are Simone Peter and Cem Özdemir . In the 2017 federal elections, the party came sixth with 8.9% of the votes and 67 out of 630 seats in the Bundestag .

Former names and variants in the states

The Green Party was founded in West Germany as Die Grünen (The Greens) in January 1980. It rose out of the anti-nuclear energy, environmental, peace, new left, and new social movements of the late 20th century.

Grüne List Umweltschutz (green list for environmental protection) were the names of some branches in Lower Saxony and other states in the Federal Republic of Germany. These groups were founded in 1977 and took part in several elections. Most of them merged with The Greens in 1980.

The West Berlin state branch of The Greens was founded as Alternative List , or precisely, Alternative List for Democracy and Umweltschutz (AL, alternative list for democracy and environmental protection) in 1978 and became the official West Berlin branch of the Greens in 1980. In 1993 it renamed to Alliance 90 / The Greens Berlin after the merger with East Berlin ‘s Greens and Alliance 90.

The Hamburg state branch of the Green Party has been called Grün-Alternative List Hamburg (green-alternative list) from its founding in 1982 until 2012. In 1984 it became the official Hamburg branch of The Greens.

History

12-13 January 1980: Foundation congress

In the 1970s, environmentalists and peace activists politically organized action groups. The political party The Greens ( German : Die Grünen ) was founded January 13, 1980 in Karlsruhe to give this political movement and parliamentary representation. Opposition to pollution , use of nuclear power , NATO military action, and certain aspects of industrialized society were main campaign issues. The Greens originated from civil initiatives, new social movements of the protests of 1968 , but also fromconservative spectrum. Important figures in the first years were – among others – Petra Kelly , Gert Bastian , Lukas Beckmann, Rudolf Bahro , Joseph Beuys , Antje Vollmer , Joschka Fischer , Herbert Gruhl , August Haußleiter [6]and Baldur Springmann.

It was at this congress, that the Greens lay their ideological foundations, proclaiming the famous Four Pillars of the Green Party :

  • Social justice
  • Ecological wisdom
  • Grassroots democracy
  • Nonviolence .

1980s: Parliamentary Representation on the Federal Level

In 1982, the conservative factions of the Greens broke away to form the Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP). Those Who Remained in the Green Party Were more Strongly pacifist and contre restrictions on immigration and reproductive rights , while Supporting the legalization of cannabis use, Placing A Higher priority is working for LGBT rights , and tending to advocate What They Described as “anti-authoritarian “concepts of education and child-rearing. They also tend to identify with a culture of protest and civil disobedience , frequently clashing with police at demonstrations against nuclear weapons, nuclear energy , and the construction of a new runway ( Startbahn West ) at Frankfurt airport . Those who left the party at the time may have felt similarly about some of these issues, but did not identify with the forms of protest that Green Party members took part in. quote needed ]

After some success at state-level elections, the party won 27 seats with 5.7% of the vote in the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament , in the 1983 federal election . Among the major political issues at the Time Was the deployment of Pershing II IRBMs and nuclear-tipped cruise missiles by the US and NATO are West German soil, Generating strong opposition in the general population found an outlet That in mass demonstrations. The newly formed party was able to draw on this popular movement to recruit support. Partly due to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and to growing awareness of the threat of air pollutionacid rain to German forests ( ” Waldsterben”), the Greens Increased Their share of the vote to 8.3% in the 1987 federal election . Around this time, Joschka Fischer emerged as the unofficial leader of the party, which he resigned to leadership following the 2005 federal election.

Until 1987, the Greens included a faction involved in pedophile activism , the SchwuP short for Arbeitsgemeinschaft “Schwule, Päderasten und Transsexuelle” ( ” working group” “Gays, Pederasts and Transsexuals” ). This faction campaigned for repealing § 176 of the German Criminal Code, dealing with child sexual abuse . Was this group controversial dans le party Itself, and have seen Was Partly responsible for the poor election result of 1985. [7] This controversy re-surfaced in 2013 and chairwoman Claudia Roth Stated she welcomed an independent scientific investigation on the extent of influence of pedophile activists had the party in the mid 1980s.[8] [9] In November 2014 the political scientist Franz Walter presented the final report of his research on a press conference. [10]

1990s: German reunification, fall out of parliament

In the 1990 federal elections , taking place post- reunified Germany , the Greens in the West did not pass the 5% limit required to win seats in the Bundestag. It is only in the case of a German election, applying the five-percent “hurdle” separately in East and West Germany, which the Greens This happened in the new states of Germany , the Greens, in a joint effort with Alliance 90 , a heterogeneous grouping of civil rights activists, were able to gain more than 5% of the vote. Some critics attribute this poor performance to the reluctance of the campaign to the prevailing mood of nationalism, instead focusing on subjects such as global warming . A campaign poster at the time proudly stated, “Everyone is talking about Germany; we’re talking about the weather!”, Paraphrasing a popular slogan of the Deutsche Bundesbahn , the German national railway. The party also discussed the reunification that was in process, rather than the desire to initiate debates on ecology and nuclear issues before reunification. [11] After the 1994 federal election , however, the merged party returned to the Bundestag, and the Greens received 7.3% of the vote nationwide and 49 seats.

1998-2002: Greens as governing party, first term

In the 1998 federal election , DESPITE a slight fall in Their percentage of the vote (6.7%), the Greens Retained 47 seats and joined the federal government for the first time in ‘ Red-Green ‘ coalition government with the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Joschka Fischer became vice-chancellor of Germany and foreign minister in the new government, which had two other green ministers ( Andrea Fischer , later Renate Künast , and Jürgen Trittin ). Almost immediately the party was plunged into a crisis by the German participation in the NATO actions in Kosovo. Numerous anti-war party members resigned their party membership when the first post-war deployment of a Red-Green government, and the party began to experience a long string of defeats in local and state-level elections. Disappointment with the Green Participation in the Government of the United States of America and the United States of America and the United States of America. , calling for tacit compromised.

In 2001, the party experienced a further crisis to some of the Green members of Parliament refused to the government’s plan of sending military personnel to the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan . Chancellor Gerhard Schröder called a vote of confidence, tying it to his strategy on the war. Four Green MPs and one Social Democrat voted against the government, but Schröder was still able to command a majority.

On the other hand, the Greens achieved a major success as a governing party through the 2000 decision to phase out the use of nuclear energy. Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Jürgen Trittin atteint year agreement with energy companies on the gradual phasing out of the country’s nineteen nuclear power plants and a cessation of civil use of nuclear power by 2020. Reviews This was authorized through the Nuclear Exit Law . Based on an estimate of 32 years of operation, the agreement defines how much energy is allowed. This law has been overturned.

2002-2005: Greens as governing party, second term

Despite the crises of the preceding election , the Greens increased their total seats to 55 seats and 8.6%. This deployment was one of the most important issues in the history of Afghanistan, and Hans-Christian Ströbele was directly elected Bundestag as a district representative for the Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg – Prenzlauer Berg East constituency in Berlin, becoming the first Green to ever gain a first-past-the-postseat in Germany. The Greens benefited from increased mobility in the form of Renewable Energies Act and LGBT groups ( Registered PartnershipLaw). Perhaps most important for the success of both the Greens and the SPD was the increasing threat of war in Iraq, which was highly unpopular with the German public, and helped gather votes. Despite losses for the SPD, the Red-Green coalition government commanded a very slight majority in the Bundestag and was renewed, with Joschka Fischer as foreign minister, Renate Künastas minister for consumer protection, nutrition and agriculture, and Jürgen Trittin as minister for the environment.

One internal issue in 2002 was the long-standing discussion about the question of whether members of parliament should be allowed to become members of the executive party. Two party conventions declined to change the party statute. The necessary majority of two thirds was missed by a small margin. As a result, Fritz Kuhn and Claudia Roth (members who have been elected to parliament) have been elected to the position of general secretary. Reinhard Bütikofer and member of the Bundestag member Angelika Beer. The party then held a member referendum on this issue in the spring of 2003 which changed the party statute. Now members of parliament can be elected to the six seats of the executive party, as long as they are not ministers or caucus leaders. 57% of all parties members voted in the member, with 67% voting in favor of the change. In 2004, after Angelika Beer was elected to the European Parliament , Claudia Roth was elected to replace the 90 Greens, the first having been elected to the European Parliament. her as party chair.

The only party convention in 2003 was planned for November 2003, but about 20% of the local organizations forced the federal party to hold a special convention convention in Cottbus early to discuss the party position Agenda 2010 , a major reform of the German welfare programs planned by Chancellor Schröder.

The November 2003 convention was held in Dresden and decided the election platform for the 2004 European Parliament elections. The German Green list for elections thesis Was headed by Rebecca Harms (Then leader of the Green party in Lower Saxony) and Daniel Cohn-Bendit , Previously Member of the European Parliament for the Greens of France . The November 2003 convention is also noteworthy because it was the first convention of a German political party ever to use an electronic voting system.

The Greens gained a record 13 of Germany’s 99 seats in these elections, mainly due to the perceived competence of Green Ministers in the federal government and the unpopularity of the Social Democratic Party .

In early 2005, the Greens were the target of the German Affair Visa 2005 , instigated in the media by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). At the end of April 2005, they celebrated the decommissioning of the Obrigheim nuclear power station . They also continue to support the Anti-Discrimination Law ( by: Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz ) in the Bundestag .

In May 2005, the only remaining state-level red-green coalition government lost the vote in the North Rhine-Westphalia state election , leaving only the federal government with participation in the Greens (apart from local governments). In the early 2005 federal election of the parties and very small losses and achieved 8.1% of the vote and 51 seats. However, due to larger losses of the SPD, the previous coalition no longer had a majority in the Bundestag.

2005-present: Greens back in opposition

For almost two years after the federal election in 2005, the Greens were not part of any government at the federal level. In June 2007, the Greens in Bremen entered into a coalition with the Social Democratic Party (SPD) following the 2007 Bremen state election .

In April 2008, following the 2008 Hamburg State Election , the Green-Alternative List (GAL) in Hamburg entered into a coalition with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the first suchstate-level coalition in Germany. ALTHOUGH the GAL Had to Agree to the deepening of the Elbe River, the building of a new coal-fired power station and two road projects Opposed They HAD, They aussi Some received significant concessions from the CDU. These included reforming state schools by Increasing the number of primary school educational workshops , the restoration of trams as public transportation in thecity-state , and more pedestrian-friendly real estate development. On November 29, 2010, the coalition collapsed, resulting in an electionthat was won by SPD.

Following the Saarland state election of August 2009, The Greens Held the balance of power after-a close election Where No two-party coalitions Could create a steady majorité government . After negotiations, the Saarland Greens rejected the option of a left-wing ‘red-green-coalition’ with the SPD and the Left ( Die Linke ) in a center-right of government with the CDU and Free Democratic Party ( FDP), a historical first time a Jamaica coalition has formed in German politics.

In June 2010, in the first state election following the victory of the CDU / CSU and the FDP in the 2009 federal election , the “black-yellow” CDU-FDP coalition in North Rhine-Westphaliaunder Jürgen Rüttgers lost its majority. The Greens and the SPD came out of SPD and Greens with the FDP or The Left, the SPD and Greens decided to a minority government , [12]which was possible because under the constitution of North Rhine-Westphalia has Plurality of seats is Sufficient to elect a minister-president . [13]So a red-green government in a state where it was defeated under Peer Steinbrück in 2005 came into office again on June 14, 2010 with the election of Hannelore Kraft as minister-president ( Cabinet Kraft I ).

The Greens founded the first international chapter of a German political party in the US on April 13, 2008 at the Goethe-Institute in Washington DC Its main goal is “to provide a platform for politically active and green-oriented German citizens, in and beyond Washington, DC, to discuss and engage in German Green Politics […] to foster professional and personal exchange, channeling the outcomes towards the political discourse in Germany. ” [14]

In March 2011 (two weeks partner after the Fukushima nuclear disaster HAD Begun), the Greens made broad gains in Rhineland-Palatinate and in Baden-Württemberg . In Baden-Württemberg they became the senior partner in a coalition for the first time. Winfried Kretschmann is now the first Green to serve as Minister-President of a German State ( Kretschmann Iand II ). Polling data from August 2011 Germans supported the Greens. [15] From 4 October 2011 to 4 September 2016 , the party was represented in all state parliaments.

Like the Social Democrats, the Greens backed Chancellor Angela Merkel on most bailout votes in the German parliament during her second term, saying their pro-European stances overrode party politics. [16] Shortly before the elections, the party plummeted to a four-year low in the polls, undermining efforts by Peer Steinbrück’s Social Democrats to Unseat Merkel. [17]

Election results

Federal Parliament ( Bundestag )

Below are charts of the results that Alliance90 / The Greens have secured in each election to the federal Bundestag. Timelines showing the number of seats and percentage of party list votes won on the right.

Election year # of constituency
votes
 % of constituency
votes
# of party list
votes
 % of party list
vote
# of overall seats won +/- Government
1980 732.619 1.0 569.589 1.5
0/497
N / A
1983 1609855 4.1 (# 5) 2167431 5.6 (# 5)
27/498
 27 Opposition
1987 2649459 7.0 (# 4) 3126256 8.3 (# 5)
42/497
 15 Opposition
1990 2589912 5.6 (# 5) 2347407 5.0 (# 4)
8/662
 36 Opposition
Results of Alliance 90 / Greens (East) and The Greens (West)
1994 3037902 6.5 (# 4) 3424315 7.3 (# 4)
49/672
 41 Opposition
1998 2448162 5.0 (# 4) 3301624 6.7 (# 4)
47/669
 2 Junior in Govt Coalition with the SPD
2002 2693794 5.6 (# 5) 4108314 8.6 (# 4)
55/603
 8 Junior in Govt Coalition with the SPD
2005 2538913 5.4 (# 5) 3838326 8.1 (# 5)
51/614
 4 Opposition
2009 3974803 9.2 (# 5) 4641197 10.7 (# 5)
68/622
 17 Opposition
2013 3177269 7.3 (# 5) 3690314 8.4 (# 4)
63/630
 5 Opposition
2017 3717436 8.0 (# 6) 4157564 8.9 (# 6)
67/709
 4 TBD

European Parliament

Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/-
1979 893.683 3.2 (# 5)
0/81
1984 2025972 8.2 (# 4)
7/81
 7
1989 2382102 8.4 (# 3)
8/81
 1
1994 3563268 10.1 (# 3)
12/99
 4
1999 1741494 6.4 (# 4)
7/99
 5
2004 3078276 11.9 (# 3)
13/99
 6
2009 3193821 12.1 (# 3)
14/99
 1
2014 3138201 10.7 (# 3)
11/96
 3

State Parliaments ( Länder )

State Parliament Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
seats Government
# ± Position
Baden-Württemberg 2016 1622631 30.3 (# 1)
47/138
 11  1st Greens – CDU
Bavaria 2013 1018652 8.6 (# 4)
18/187
 1  4th Opposition
Berlin 2016 248.243 15.2 (# 4)
27/160
 3  4th SPD – Greens – The Left
Brandenburg 2014 60.762 6.2 (# 5)
6/88
 1  4th Opposition
Bremen 2015 176.807 15.1 (# 3)
14/83
 7  2nd SPD – Greens
Hamburg 2015 432.713 12.3 (# 3)
14/121
 1  3rd SPD – Greens
Hesse 2013 348371 11.1 (# 3)
14/110
 3  3rd CDU – Greens
Lower Saxony 2013 489.572 13.7 (# 3)
20/137
 8  3rd SPD – Greens
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2016 38,834 4.8 (# 5)
0/71
 0  5th Extra-Parliamentary
North Rhine-Westphalia 2017 539.062 6.4 (# 5)
14/237
 15  5th Opposition
Rhineland-Palatinate 2016 113.261 5.3 (# 5)
6/101
 12  5th SPD – FDP – Greens
Saarland 2017 21.392 4.0 (# 5)
0/51
 2  6th Extra-Parliamentary
Saxony 2014 93.852 5.7 (# 5)
8/126
 1  5th Opposition
Saxony-Anhalt 2016 58.226 5.2 (# 5)
5/105
 4  5th CDU – SPD – Greens
Schleswig-Holstein 2017 189.728 12.9 (# 3)
10/69
 0  3rd CDU – Greens – FDP
Thuringia 2014 53.395 5.7 (# 5)
6/91
 0  5th The Left – SPD – Greens

States ( Länder )

The Greens, Alliance 90
and Alliance 90 / The Greens in Government
length State / Federation Coalition partner (s)
1985-1987 Hesse SPD (Cabinet Börner III)
1989-1990 Berlin Alternative List for Democracy and Environment Protection with SPD (Senate Momper)
1990-1994 Lower Saxony SPD ( Cabinet Schröder I )
1990-1994 Brandenburg Alliance 90 with SPD and FDP (Cabinet Stolpe I)
1991-1999 Hesse SPD (Cabinets Eichel I and II)
1991-1995 Bremen SPD and FDP (Senate Wedemeier III)
1994-1998 Saxony-Anhalt SPD (Cabinet Höppner I),
minority government supported by PDS
1995-2005 North Rhine-Westphalia SPD (Rau V Cabinets, Clement I and II, Steinbrück)
1996-2005 Schleswig-Holstein SPD (Simonis Cabinets II and III)
1997-2001 Hamburg SPD (Senate Runde)
1998-2005 Federal Government SPD ( Schröder Cabinets I and II )
2001-2002 Berlin SPD (Senate Wowereit I),
minority government supported by PDS
since 2007 Bremen SPD (Senates Böhrnsen II and III)
2008-2010 Hamburg CDU (Senate of Beust III and Ahlhaus)
2009-2012 Saarland CDU and FDP (Cabinets Müller III and Kramp-Karrenbauer)
2010-2017 North Rhine-Westphalia SPD (Kraft I Cabinets Minority and Changing Majorities)
2011-2016 Baden-Württemberg SPD ( Kretschmann I ) ( Greens as leading party )
since 2011 Rhineland-Palatinate SPD (Beck & Dreyer I and II Cabinets)
2012-2017 Schleswig-Holstein SPD and SSW (Cabinet Albig)
since 2013 Lower Saxony SPD ( Weil Cabinet )
since 2014 Hesse CDU (Cabinet Bouffier II)
since 2014 Thuringia Linke and SPD ( Cabinet Ramelow )
since 2015 Hamburg SPD ( Cabinet Scholz II )
since 2016 Baden-Württemberg CDU ( Kretschmann II Cabinet ) ( Greens as leading party )
since 2016 Saxony-Anhalt CDU and SPD (Cabinet Haseloff II)
since 2016 Berlin SPD and Linke (Senate Müller II)
Since 2017 Schleswig-Holstein CDU and FDP (Cabinet Günther)

Policy

Energy and nuclear power

rom the inception of the party, they have been concerned with the construction of all nuclear power stations. As an alternative, they promote a shift to an alternative energy and a comprehensive program of energy conservation .

In 1986, large parts of Germany were covered with radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl disaster and Germans went to great lengths to deal with contamination. Germany’s anti-nuclear stance was strengthened. From the mid-1990s onwards, anti-nuclear protesters were primarily directed against the transport of radioactive waste in “CASTOR” containers .

After the Chernobyl disaster, the Greens became more radicalized and resisted compromised on the nuclear issue. During the 1990s, a reorientation towards a moderate program occurred with global warming and ozone depletion . During the federal red-green government (1998-2005) many people have been disappointed with what they have seen.

Energy policy is still the most important cross-cutting issue in climate and economic policies. The development of renewable energy is also a great opportunity for technical and economic innovation. Solar industry and environmental technologies are already in force, and they are already being developed. In addition, a priority of green energy policy is increasing the thermal insulation and energy efficiency of homes, the phaseout of all nuclear energy generation with possible high-efficiency gas-fired power plants operational during the transition phase.

Environment and climate policy

The central idea of ​​green politics is sustainable development . The concept of environmental protection is the cornerstone of Alliance 90 / The Greens policy. In particular, the economic, energy and transport policy claims are in close interaction with environmental considerations. The Greens Acknowledges the natural environment as a high priority and animal protection should be enshrined as a national objective in constitutional law. An effective environmental policy would be based on a common environmental code, with the urgent integration of a climate change bill. During the red-green coalition (1998-2005) a policy of agricultural change is a paradigm shift in agricultural policy towards a more ecological friendly agriculture, which needs to continue.

Climate change is at the center of all policy considerations. This includes environmental policy and safety and social aspects. The plans of the Alliance 90 / The Greens provide a negative impact on emissions by reducing emissions to minus 40 percent compared to 1990.

Transport

A similarly high priority is given to transport policy. The switch from a traveling allowance to a mobility allowance, which is paid regardless of income, replacing company car privileges. The truck toll will act as a protection instrument internalising the external costs of transport. Railway should be promoted in order to achieve the objective environmental objectives and the comprehensive care of customers. The railway infrastructure is to remain permanently in the public sector, allowing a reduction in the cost of road construction infrastructure. Greens want to control privileges on keroseneand for international flights, introduce an air ticket levy. Restrict speeds nationwide on the highways to 120 km / h and country roads to 80 km / h. The Greens want to create a market incentive and research program of € 500 million annually to ensure that by 2020 there are at least two million electric cars on German roads.

Welfare, health, family and education

For many years, the Green Party has advocated against the “Ehegattensplitting” policy, under which the incomes of married couples are split for taxation purposes. Furthermore, the party advocates for a massive increase in spending for preschools on the federal level. EUR 1 billion more for vocational schools and more than 200 million Euros more BAföG (Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz in German, for the purposes of the Federal Law for the Advancement of Education) for adults. [19]

In its platform in 2013, the Green Party advocates for a minimum wage of 8.50 Euro per hour, which was implemented on January 1, 2015. [20] It continues to press for higher minimum wages. quote needed ]

The Greens want to continue with the age of 67, but they want to include some provisions. quote needed ]

When it comes to drug use, the Greens want to decriminalize marijuana use and allow for private growing plants. [21] Furthermore, the Greens support for the drug and the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. quote needed ]

Women and LGBT rights

The Green Party has always been at the forefront of fighting for women’s and gay rights. For example, it supports the implementation of quotas in executive boards, the policy of equal pay for equal work, and continuing the fight against domestic violence. [22] According to its website, the Green Party “fights for the acceptance and against the exclusion of homosexuals, bisexuals, transsexuals, intersexuals, and transgender people”. [23]

LGBT + people face abroad, the Green Party wants to extend LGBT people abroad. [24] Volker Beck, one of the party’s most prominent gay members. [25] Because of the extensive support of the Green Party, the LGBT community has a great deal of support for the Green Party and their political ideology does not quite align. [25]

Electorate

The Infratest Dimap political research company has suggested the Green vote to include those on higher incomes (eg above € 2000 / month) and the party’s support is lower among households with lower incomes. La même polling research aussi que la Concluded Fewer Greens received votes from the unemployed and general working population, with business people favouring the party as well as the center-right liberal Free Democratic Party. According to Infratest Dimap the Greens received more members of the age group 34-42 than any other age group and that the young was more supportive of the party than the old. (Source: Intrafest Dimap political research company for the ARD . [26] )

The Greens have a higher vote than rural areas, except for a small number of rural areas with local dry cleaning, such as strip mining or radioactive waste deposits. The cities of Bonn , Cologne , Stuttgart , Berlin , Hamburg , Frankfurt and Munich have among the highest per cent Green voters in the country. The smaller towns of Freiburg im Breisgau , Tübingen , Konstanz , Oldenburg , Darmstadt , Heidelberg andGöttingen , have a strong share of Green votes, with Freiburg, Darmstadt, Tübingen and Konstanz even having Green mayors. The party has a lower level of support in the states of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). However, in 2011, the Greens were represented in the parliament of all German states.

See also

  • Anti-nuclear movement
  • Green party
  • Green Party faction (Bundestag)
  • Green Youth (Germany)
  • List of German Green Party politicians
  • List of political parties in Germany

References

  1. Jump up^ http://www.gruene.de/presse/2017/gruen-waechst-buendnis-90die-gruenen-verzeichnen-mitgliederrekord.html
  2. Jump up^ Nordsieck, Wolfram. “Parties and Elections in Europe” . parties-and-elections.eu . Retrieved 13 October 2016 .
  3. Jump up^ Christian Krell (2009). Sozialdemokratie und Europa: Die Europapolitik von SPD, Labor Party and Socialist Party . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften / Springer-Verlag. p. 130.
  4. Jump up^ Senem Aydin-Düzgit (2012). Constructions of European Identity: Debates and Discourses on Turkey and the EU . Palgrave Macmillan. p. 18. ISBN  978-0-230-34838-7 .
  5. Jump up^ “Etappen der Parteigeschichte der GRÜNEN” . Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung . Retrieved 2016-11-02 .
  6. Jump up^ Zubrin, Robert (2012). Merchants of Despair: Radical Environmentalists, Criminal Pseudo-Scientists, and the Fatal Cult of Antihumanism . New Atlantis Books. ISBN  978-1-59403-476-3 .
  7. Jump up^ Torso von SchwuP Der Spiegel13/1985.
  8. Jump up^ Roth will Pädophilie-Aufarbeitung unterstützen,Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung1 May 2013.
  9. Jump up^ Jan Fleischhauer, Ann-Katrin Müller and René Pfister (2013). “Shadows from the Past: Haunt Green Party Pedophile Links” . Spiegel.
  10. Jump up^ Leithaeuser, Johannes (11 December 2014). “Viele Entschuldigungen und ein Erklärungsversuch” . Frankfurter Allgemeine . Berlin , Germany . Retrieved 4 August 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Williams, Carol J. “Greens, E. German Leftists Join Forces Election” . Los Angeles Times . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 10 July 2017 .
  12. Jump up^ “Machtplan Krafts: Rot-Grün Plant Minderheitsregierung in NRW” . Spiegel.de . Retrieved 2012-06-03 .
  13. Jump up^ 56, Ministerium für Inneres und Kommunales Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Referat. “Gesetze und Verordnungen – Landesrecht NRW” . nrw.de . Retrieved 13 October 2016 .
  14. Jump up^ Grüner Ortsverband Washington: About us ArchivedSeptember 28, 2009 at theWayback Machine.
  15. Jump up^ Kulish, Nicholas (2011-09-01). “Greens Gain in Germany, and the World Takes Notice” . The New York Times . Retrieved 2011-09-02 .
  16. Jump up^ Tony Czuczka and Patrick Donahue (September 24, 2013), [Merkel’s Cold Embrace Leaves SPD Wary of Coalition Talks] Bloomberg News .
  17. Jump up^ Patrick Donahue (September 11, 2013),Germany’s Greens Slump, Dimming SPD Chances of Unseating Merkel Bloomberg News .
  18. Jump up^ IAEA (2011). “Power Reactor Information System” .
  19. Jump up^ “Kritik am Wahlprogramm: Grune Steuerpläne treffen die Mittelschicht – N24.de” . N24.de (in German) . Retrieved 2016-12-16 .
  20. Jump up^ “Gesetzlicher Mindestlohn in Deutschland” . www.mindest-lohn.org . Retrieved 2016-12-16 .
  21. Jump up^ “Drogenpolitik – BÜNDNIS 90 / DIE GRÜNEN BUNDESPARTEI” . www.gruene.de . 2016-09-23 . Retrieved 2016-12-16 .
  22. Jump up^ “Frauenpolitik – BÜNDNIS 90 / DIE GRÜNEN BUNDESPARTEI” . www.gruene.de . 2015-10-01 . Retrieved 2016-12-16 .
  23. Jump up^ “Lesben, Schwule & Sexual Identität – BÜNDNIS 90 / DIE GRÜNEN BUNDESPARTEI” . www.gruene.de . 2013-01-01 . Retrieved 2016-12-16 .
  24. Jump up^ ” ” Asylschutz for Lesben, Schwule und Transgender ausbauen ” ” . Retrieved 2016-12-16 .
  25. ^ Jump up to:b “Politik unterm Regenbogen” . Retrieved 2016-12-16 .
  26. Jump up^ “Februar” 2000 “ARD DeutschlandTREND” Bundesweit “Umfragen & Analysen” Infratest dimap . ” Infratest-dimap.de . Retrieved 2012-06-03 .

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